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Significance and Use
4.1 The determination of the superplastic properties of a metallic sheet material is important for the observation, development and comparison of superplastic materials. It is also necessary to predict the correct forming parameters during an SPF process. SPF tensile testing has peculiar characteristics compared to conventional mechanical testing, which distort the true values of stress, strain, strain hardening, and strain rate at the very large elongations encountered in an SPF pull test, consequently conventional mechanical test methods cannot be used. This test method addresses those characteristics by optimizing the shape of the test coupon and specifying a new test procedure.
4.2 The evaluation of a superplastic material can be divided into two parts. Firstly, the basic superplastic-forming (SPF) properties of the material are measured using the four parameters of stress, temperature, strain, and strain rate. These are obtained using conversions from the raw data of a tensile test. Secondly, derived properties useful to define an SPF material are obtained from the basic properties using specific equations.
4.3 The test coupon undergoes an essentially uniform and constant neck along its length, and S and e are assumed in this standard to be valid. However at the junction to the clamp sections of the test coupon the cross section reduces from the original value to the final value, over a length of approximately 4 % at each end. Also, there are local small instabilities of cross section over the gauge length. These contribute to an error in the calculated values of ε and σ. In the absence of currently available extensometers that could operate in the high temperature environment of an SPF test, ε and σ are to be inferred from crosshead extension and force.
4.4 The derived term m is widely used to describe the SPF properties of a material. It should be used with caution, as it is dependent on strain, strain rate and temperature. Many references in the literature do not identify the strain condition at which the readings were taken, or allow multiple strains to be used in the determination of m.
4.5 Many superplastic alloys exhibit strain hardening. However, the conventional strain hardening exponent n as defined in Test Method is not valid for superplastic materials as strain hardening in the latter is usually a coefficient of strain, rather than an exponent. The mechanism of strain hardening in superplastic flow is essentially due to grain growth, and although the stress/strain relationship is often linear, it is not universal for all superplastic materials. Consequently, there is no simple definition of a strain hardening coefficient and this standard does not define one. Consideration of strain hardening in superplastic deformation is discussed in Ghosh and Hamilton's, “Influences of Material Parameters and Microstructure on Superplastic Forming.”
4.6 It is assumed no local necking takes place and the cross section of the test coupon is constant over the entire gauge length. For some materials, cavitation inside the material increases the volume of the gauge section as the test progresses, and the true cross-sectional area has to be compensated for any strain. For other materials, the coupon can develop a ribbed or other local texture, and in this case, the minimum cross section has to be measured. During the test there is an increasingly non uniform cross section at each end of the test coupon where the gauge section transitions to the original width at the clamp section. This effect is small and can usually be ignored.
1.1 This test method describes the procedure for determining the superplastic forming properties (SPF) of a metallic sheet material. It includes tests both for the basic SPF properties and also for derived SPF properties. The test for basic properties encompasses effects due to strain hardening or softening.
1.2 This test method covers sheet materials with thicknesses of at least 0.5 mm but not greater than 6 mm. It characterizes the material under a uni-axial tensile stress condition.
Note 1: Most industrial applications of superplastic forming involve a multi-axial stress condition in a sheet; however it is more convenient to characterize a material under a uni-axial tensile stress condition. Tests should be performed in different orientations to the rolling direction of the sheet to ascertain initial anisotropy.
1.3 This method has been used successfully between strain rates of 10-5 to 10-1 per second.
1.4 This method has been used successfully on Aluminum and Titanium alloys. The use of the method with other metals should be verified.
1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.7 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
E4 Practices for Force Verification of Testing Machines
E6 Terminology Relating to Methods of Mechanical Testing
E21 Test Methods for Elevated Temperature Tension Tests of Metallic Materials
E177 Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods
E646 Test Method for Tensile Strain-Hardening Exponents (n -Values) of Metallic Sheet Materials
E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
ICS Number Code 77.140.50 (Flat steel products and semi-products)
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ASTM E2448-18, Standard Test Method for Determining the Superplastic Properties of Metallic Sheet Materials, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2018, www.astm.orgBack to Top