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Significance and Use
4.1 This standard guide applies to concrete that is still in place with a defined geometry and known, documented history.
4.2 It is not intended for use on concrete that has already been rubbelized where it is difficult to measure the radiation levels and not easy to remove surface contamination to reduce radiation levels after concrete has been rubbelized.
4.3 This standard guide applies to surface or volumetrically contaminated concrete, where the depth of contamination can be measured or estimated based on the history of the concrete.
4.4 This standard guide does not apply to the reinforcement bar (rebar) found in concrete. Although most concrete contains rebar, it is generally removed before the concrete is dispositioned. In addition, rebar may be activated, and is covered under procedures for reuse of scrap metal.
4.5 General unit-dose and unit-cost data to support the calculations is provided in the appendices of this standard guide. However, if site-specific data is available, it should be used instead of the general information provided here.
4.6 This standard guide helps determine estimated doses to the public during disposal of concrete and to future residents of disposal areas. It does not include dose to radiation workers already involved in a radiation control program. It is assumed that the dose to radiation workers is already tracked and kept within acceptable levels through a radiation control program. The cost and dose to radiation workers could be added in to find an overall cost and dose for each option.
1.1 This standard guide defines the process for developing a strategy for dispositioning concrete from nuclear facility decommissioning. It outlines a 10-step method to evaluate disposal options for radioactively contaminated concrete. One of the steps is to complete a detailed analysis of the cost and dose to nonradiation workers (the public); the methodology and supporting data to perform this analysis are detailed in the appendices. The resulting data can be used to balance dose and cost and select the best disposal option. These data, which establish a technical basis to apply to release the concrete, can be used in several ways: (1) to show that the release meets existing release criteria, (2) to establish a basis to request release of the concrete on a case-by-case basis, (3) to develop a basis for establishing release criteria where none exists.
1.2 This standard guide is based on the “Protocol for Development of Authorized Release Limits for Concrete at U.S. Department of Energy Sites,” () from which the analysis methodology and supporting data are taken.
1.3 Guide provides a general process for release of materials containing residual amounts of radioactivity. In addition, Guide provides a general process for analyzing radioactive pathways. This standard guide is intended for use in conjunction with Guides and , and provides a more detailed approach for the release of concrete.
1.4 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
ANSI StandardsANSI/HPS N13.12
IAEA StandardsIAEA-TECDOC-855 Clearance Levels for Radionuclides in Solid Materials Safety Series No. 111-P-1.1 Application of Exemption Principles to the Recycle and Reuse of Materials from Nuclear Facilities
E1278 Guide for Radioactive Pathway Methodology for Release of Sites Following Decommissioning
E1760 Guide for Unrestricted Disposition of Bulk Materials Containing Residual Amounts of Radioactivity
E1893 Guide for Selection and Use of Portable Radiological Survey Instruments for Performing In Situ Radiological Assessments to Support Unrestricted Release from Further Regulatory Controls
ICS Number Code 27.120.01 (Nuclear energy in general)
UNSPSC Code 26142100(Nuclear reactor equipment)
|Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.)|
ASTM E2216-02(2020), Standard Guide for Evaluating Disposal Options for Concrete from Nuclear Facility Decommissioning, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2020, www.astm.orgBack to Top