ASTM E1732 - 19

    Standard Terminology Relating to Forensic Science

    Active Standard ASTM E1732 | Developed by Subcommittee: E30.92

    Book of Standards Volume: 14.02


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    Significance and Use

    3.1 These terms have particular application to the forensic sciences. In addition, a hierarchy of sources of definitions were used in the development of this terminology. The hierarchy is as follows: Webster’s New Collegiate 7th Dictionary; technical dictionaries; and the Compilation of ASTM Standard Definitions (1).11 The subcommittee developed a suitable definition after all of the sources in the hierarchy were found wanting.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This terminology standard includes definitions of terms used in the forensic sciences.

    1.2 Legal and scientific and terms in common use that are generally understood or defined adequately in other readily available sources may not be included, except when dictionaries show multiple definitions and it seems desirable to indicate the definitions recommended for forensic science use.

    1.3 Section A defines terms that are common to multiple areas of forensic science, whereas, the subsequent sections define terms pertaining to specific forensic science areas, as follows:

    Section A: General (Common) Forensic Science Terms

     

    The terms defined in Section A are the direct responsibility of Subcommittee E30.92, Terminology.

     

     

     

    Section B: Criminalistics

     

    The terms defined in Section B are the direct responsibility of Subcommittee E30.01, Criminalistics.

     

     

    Section B1: Terms for Seized Drug Analysis

     

     

    Section B2: Terms for Gunshot Residue (GSR) Analysis and Smokeless Powder Analysis

     

     

    Section B3: Terms for Paint Analysis

     

     

    Section B4: Terms for Textile, Fiber, Cord, and Tape Examination

     

     

    Section B5: Terms for Glass Examination

     

     

     

    Section C: Digital and Multimedia Evidence

     

    The terms defined in Section C are the direct responsibility of Subcommittee E30.12, Digital and Multimedia Evidence.

     

     

    Section C1: Terms for Computer Forensics

     

     

    Section C2: Terms for Digital Image Processing and Multimedia Evidence Examination

     

     

    Section C3: Terms for Magnetic Card Reader Examination

     

     

    Section C4: Terms for Facial Image Examination

     

     

     

    Section D: Interdisciplinary

     

    The terms defined in Section D are the direct responsibility of Subcommittee E30.11, Interdisciplinary Forensic Science Standards.

     

     

     

    Section E: Questioned Documents

     

    The terms defined in Section E were formerly the direct responsibility of Subcommittee E30.02, Questioned Documents, and are currently the direct responsibility of Subcommittee E30.90, Executive Committee.

    1.4 Entries listed in Sections B–E reflect only those existing in Committee E30 standards current with the date of a once yearly review of Committee E30 standards. Changes to standards or entries following this date will appear in Sections B–E after the following year’s review date.

    1.5 An alphabetical list of the terms defined in this standard is given in Appendix X1, which also identifies the section(s) in which each term is defined.

    1.6 Definitions identical to those published by another standards-developing organization or ASTM committee are identified with the abbreviation of the name of the organization or the identifying document and ASTM committee; for example, ASME is the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

    1.7 In some cases different usage of a term in different fields has been noted.

    1.8 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    C162 Terminology of Glass and Glass Products

    D123 Terminology Relating to Textiles

    D6161 Terminology Used for Microfiltration, Ultrafiltration, Nanofiltration and Reverse Osmosis Membrane Processes

    E131 Terminology Relating to Molecular Spectroscopy

    E177 Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods

    E308 Practice for Computing the Colors of Objects by Using the CIE System

    E456 Terminology Relating to Quality and Statistics

    E860 Practice for Examining And Preparing Items That Are Or May Become Involved In Criminal or Civil Litigation

    E1187 Terminology Relating to Conformity Assessment

    E1301 Guide for Proficiency Testing by Interlaboratory Comparisons

    E1402 Guide for Sampling Design

    E1588 Practice for Gunshot Residue Analysis by Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry

    E1605 Terminology Relating to Lead in Buildings

    E1610 Guide for Forensic Paint Analysis and Comparison

    E1968 Guide for Microcrystal Testing in Forensic Analysis of Cocaine

    E1969 Guide for Microcrystal Testing in Forensic Analysis of Methamphetamine and Amphetamine

    E2125 Guide for Microcrystal Testing in Forensic Analysis of Phencyclidine and Its Analogues

    E2161 Terminology Relating to Performance Validation in Thermal Analysis and Rheology

    E2224 Guide for Forensic Analysis of Fibers by Infrared Spectroscopy

    E2225 Guide for Forensic Examination of Fabrics and Cordage

    E2227 Guide for Forensic Examination of Non-Reactive Dyes in Textile Fibers by Thin-Layer Chromatography

    E2228 Guide for Microscopical Examination of Textile Fibers

    E2363 Terminology Relating to Process Analytical Technology in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    E2388 Guide for Minimum Training Requirements for Forensic Document Examiners

    E2678 Guide for Education and Training in Computer Forensics

    E2710 Guide for Preservation of Charred Documents

    E2711 Guide for Preservation of Liquid Soaked Documents

    E2765 Practice for Use of Image Capture and Storage Technology in Forensic Document Examination

    E2808 Guide for Microspectrophotometry and Color Measurement in Forensic Paint Analysis

    E2809 Guide for Using Scanning Electron Microscopy/X-Ray Spectrometry in Forensic Paint Examinations

    E2882 Guide for Analysis of Clandestine Drug Laboratory Evidence

    E2916 Terminology for Digital and Multimedia Evidence Examination

    E2927 Test Method for Determination of Trace Elements in Soda-Lime Glass Samples Using Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry for Forensic Comparisons

    E2937 Guide for Using Infrared Spectroscopy in Forensic Paint Examinations

    E2998 Practice for Characterization and Classification of Smokeless Powder

    E2999 Test Method for Analysis of Organic Compounds in Smokeless Powder by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    E3017 Practice for Examining Magnetic Card Readers

    E3085 Guide for Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy in Forensic Tape Examinations

    E3115 Guide for Capturing Facial Images for Use with Facial Recognition Systems

    E3148 Guide for Postmortem Facial Image Capture

    E3149 Guide for Facial Image Comparison Feature List for Morphological Analysis

    F2725 Guide for European Unions Registration, Evaluation, and Authorization of Chemicals (REACH) Supply Chain Information Exchange

    ISO Standards

    ISO3534:1993

    ISO GUM Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM)

    ISO/IEC 7813 Information TechnologyIdentification CardsFinancial Transaction Cards


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 01.040.11 (Health care technology (Vocabularies)); 11.020 (Medical sciences and health care facilities in general)

    Referencing This Standard
    Link Here
    Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.)

    DOI: 10.1520/E1732-19

    Citation Format

    ASTM E1732-19, Standard Terminology Relating to Forensic Science, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2019, www.astm.org

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