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    ASTM E1593 - 21

    Standard Guide for Assessing the Efficacy of Consumer Products in Reducing the Perception of Malodor

    Active Standard ASTM E1593 | Developed by Subcommittee: E18.07

    Book of Standards Volume: 14.03


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    Significance and Use

    5.1 The purpose of this guide is to assess the ability of consumer products to reduce malodor intensity from a control state. Several experimental hypotheses are possible, depending on the objective of the test. Possible objectives with respective hypotheses are given in Appendix X1.

    5.2 Many consumer products are sold commercially with the intent of providing a means of improving the odor quality of a volume of air, or the odor quality of a substrate such as fabric or household surfaces, relative to some existing environmental condition. In the case of air care products, this typically involves the application of an odorous substance into the air space by means of some active or passive mechanism (for example, by spraying, or by evaporation). This procedure is also applicable to other mechanisms of odor reduction (for example, air filtration, chemical reactions, etc.).

    5.3 Selection of representative malodor sources is of critical importance. The malodor source must be readily available and of a consistent odor quality. A reasonable malodor source should be chemically and aesthetically correct. The experimenter and client must agree upon the appropriateness of a malodor source before further details of the test design are worked out. Experimental variation will be reduced by using uniform malodor sources. Information collected on malodor reduction will thus be more comparable from experiment to experiment and from laboratory to laboratory.

    5.4 The procedure recommended can be used for assessment of the malodor reduction and elimination efficacy of consumer products including: air fresheners, air filtration products, aerosol/spray and continuous/solid air freshener products, candles, fabric care products including detergents and fabric enhancing/conditioning products, surface care products including carpet care products, surface cleaning products such as sprays etc., pet care products, and other products intended to deliver a malodor reduction benefit. It should be noted that while product evaluations are fundamentally the same, different treatment or measurement techniques may be necessary because of inherent differences in the product delivery systems.

    5.5 Temporal Aspects—The procedures herein can be applied to evaluate temporal aspects of product performance, such as determining how long it takes for a product to work, or how long it takes malodor to develop (for example, after treatment, etc.).

    5.6 These procedures can be used to assess efficacy against any standard malodor, regardless of the mechanism of odor removal.

    5.7 This guide is designed to provide guidance in product formulation and new product development, and for quality control issues.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This guide covers standard procedures for the quantitative sensory assessment of perceived olfactory intensity of malodors for the purpose of assessing the malodor reduction efficacy of consumer products including, but not limited to, air care, fabric care, home care, pet care, and similar products.

    1.2 This guide is not intended to cover axillary deodorancy; refer instead to Guide E1207.

    1.3 Malodors may be from natural or synthetic sources.

    1.4 This guide is a compendium of information or series of options that does not recommend a specific course of action. The user of this guide is responsible for identifying the most appropriate test design and using the appropriate statistical tools to address the experimental design.

    1.5 This guide is designed to provide guidance in product formulation and new product development, and for quality control issues.

    1.6 The scope of this guide does not include all guidance necessary to support claims. For further guidance the researcher may refer to Guide E1958. The usage of methods described in this guide can be used as part of a comprehensive claims support strategy for technical types of claims (such as claims that the product will create a sensory change when used on malodor). However, this guide does not address other important elements of the claim support strategy, including determining the statistical confidence requirements, or determination of the consumer relevance of the data obtained, as discussed in 1.7.

    1.7 The testing of products designed to reduce malodors via sensory testing as outlined in the present Guide can yield technical support for products’ efficacy claims. The methods described in this guide—assesors with identified sensory acuity and trained, malodors that may be lab-created or synthetic, and controlled exposure to malodors in a controlled indoor environment—can deliver results with high internal validity. Internal validity refers to studies designed so that variables that may obscure the finding of an effect are controlled or managed. It is important to recognize that internal validity does not assure external validity. A robust support strategy for a malodor efficacy claim is stronger with additional evidence that the sensory effect is consumer perceivable. Such evidence of product’s malodor reduction efficacy may be, for example, drawn from studies where consumers serve as evaluators, or where the product is used to reduce malodors in a more representative environment (for example, at home).

    1.8 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific precautionary statements are given in Section 6 and X3.6.3.7.

    1.9 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    E253 Terminology Relating to Sensory Evaluation of Materials and Products

    E544 Practice for Referencing Suprathreshold Odor Intensity

    E1207 Guide for Sensory Evaluation of Axillary Deodorancy

    E1958 Guide for Sensory Claim Substantiation

    E2263 Test Method for Paired Preference Test


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 71.100.70 (Cosmetics. Toiletries)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code


    Referencing This Standard
    Link Here
    Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.)

    DOI: 10.1520/E1593-21

    Citation Format

    ASTM E1593-21, Standard Guide for Assessing the Efficacy of Consumer Products in Reducing the Perception of Malodor, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2021, www.astm.org

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