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Significance and Use
5.1 The electrical output of a photovoltaic device is dependent on the spectral content of the illumination source, its intensity, and the device temperature. To make standardized, accurate measurements of the performance of photovoltaic devices under a variety of light sources when the intensity is measured with a calibrated reference cell, it is necessary to account for the error in the short-circuit current that occurs if the relative quantum efficiency of the reference cell is not identical to the quantum efficiency of the device to be tested. A similar error occurs if the spectral irradiance distribution of the test light source is not identical to the desired reference spectral irradiance distribution. These errors are accounted for by the spectral mismatch parameter (described in Test Method ), which is a quantitative measure of the error in the short-circuit current measurement. It is the intent of this test method to provide a recognized procedure for calibrating, characterizing, and reporting the calibration data for primary photovoltaic reference cells using a tabular reference spectrum.
5.2 The calibration of a reference cell is specific to a particular spectral irradiance distribution. It is the responsibility of the user to specify the applicable irradiance distribution, for example Tables . This test method allows calibration with respect to any tabular spectrum.
5.2.1 Tables do not provide spectral irradiance data for wavelengths longer than 4 μm, yet pyrheliometers (see ) typically have response in the 4–10 μm region. To mitigate this discrepancy, the Tables spectra must be extended with the data provided in .
5.3 A reference cell should be recalibrated at yearly intervals, or every six months if the cell is in continuous use outdoors.
5.4 Recommended physical characteristics of reference cells can be found in Specification .
5.5 High-quality silicon primary reference cells are expected to be stable devices by nature, and as such can be considered control samples. Thus, the calibration value data points (see ) can be monitored with control chart techniques according to Practice , and the test result uncertainty estimated. The control charts can also be extended with data points from previous calibrations to detect changes to the reference cell or the calibration procedures.
1.1 This test method is intended for calibration and characterization of primary terrestrial photovoltaic reference cells to a desired reference spectral irradiance distribution, such as Tables . The recommended physical requirements for these reference cells are described in Specification . Reference cells are principally used in the determination of the electrical performance of photovoltaic devices.
1.2 Primary photovoltaic reference cells are calibrated in natural sunlight using the relative quantum efficiency of the cell, the relative spectral distribution of the sunlight, and a tabulated reference spectral irradiance distribution. Selection of the reference spectral irradiance distribution is left to the user.
1.3 This test method requires the use of a pyrheliometer that is calibrated according to Test Method , which requires the use of a pyrheliometer that is traceable to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR). Therefore, reference cells calibrated according to this test method are traceable to the WRR.
1.4 This test method is used to calibrate primary reference cells; Test Method may be used to calibrate secondary and non-primary reference cells (these terms are defined in Terminology ).
1.5 This test method applies only to the calibration of a photovoltaic cell that shows a linear dependence of its short-circuit current on irradiance over its intended range of use, as defined in Test Method .
1.6 This test method applies only to the calibration of a reference cell fabricated with a single photovoltaic junction.
1.7 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.8 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.9 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
E490 Standard Solar Constant and Zero Air Mass Solar Spectral Irradiance Tables
E772 Terminology of Solar Energy Conversion
E816 Test Method for Calibration of Pyrheliometers by Comparison to Reference Pyrheliometers
E927 Classification for Solar Simulators for Electrical Performance Testing of Photovoltaic Devices
E948 Test Method for Electrical Performance of Photovoltaic Cells Using Reference Cells Under Simulated Sunlight
E973 Test Method for Determination of the Spectral Mismatch Parameter Between a Photovoltaic Device and a Photovoltaic Reference Cell
E1021 Test Method for Spectral Responsivity Measurements of Photovoltaic Devices
E1040 Specification for Physical Characteristics of Nonconcentrator Terrestrial Photovoltaic Reference Cells
E1143 Test Method for Determining the Linearity of a Photovoltaic Device Parameter with Respect To a Test Parameter
E1362 Test Methods for Calibration of Non-Concentrator Photovoltaic Non-Primary Reference Cells
E2554 Practice for Estimating and Monitoring the Uncertainty of Test Results of a Test Method Using Control Chart Techniques
G138 Test Method for Calibration of a Spectroradiometer Using a Standard Source of Irradiance
G173 Tables for Reference Solar Spectral Irradiances: Direct Normal and Hemispherical on 37 Tilted Surface
G183 Practice for Field Use of Pyranometers, Pyrheliometers and UV Radiometers
WMO DocumentWMO-No. 8 Guide to Meteorological Instruments and Methods of Observation, Seventh ed., 2008.
ICS Number Code 27.160 (Solar energy engineering)
UNSPSC Code 32111701(Photovoltaic cells)
|Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.)|
ASTM E1125-16(2020), Standard Test Method for Calibration of Primary Non-Concentrator Terrestrial Photovoltaic Reference Cells Using a Tabular Spectrum, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2020, www.astm.orgBack to Top