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This practice is primarily a statement of principles for the guidance of ASTM technical committees and others in the preparation of a sampling plan for a specific material. The purpose of the sample may be to estimate properties of a larger population, such as a lot, pile or shipment, the percentage of some constituent, the fraction of the items that fail to meet (or meet) a specified requirement, the average characteristic or quality of an item, the total weight of the shipment, or the probable maximum or minimum content of some chemical. A probability sampling plan will possess an objective procedure for the selection of the sample with the use of random numbers and a definite formula for the estimate and standard error of any estimate.
This abstract is a brief summary of the referenced standard. It is informational only and not an official part of the standard; the full text of the standard itself must be referred to for its use and application. ASTM does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents of this abstract are accurate, complete or up to date.
Significance and Use
4.1 The purpose of the sample may be to estimate properties of a larger population, such as a lot, pile or shipment, the percentage of some constituent, the fraction of the items that fail to meet (or meet) a specified requirement, the average characteristic or quality of an item, the total weight of the shipment, or the probable maximum or minimum content of, say, some chemical.
4.2 The purpose may be the rational disposition of a lot or shipment without the intermediate step of the formation of an estimate.
4.3 The purpose may be to provide aid toward rational action concerning the production process that generated the lot, pile or shipment.
4.4 Whatever the purpose of the sample, adhering to the principles of probability sampling will allow the uncertainties, such as bias and variance of estimates or the risks of the rational disposition or action, to be calculated objectively and validly from the theory of combinatorial probabilities. This assumes, of course, that the sampling operations themselves were carried out properly, as well. Proper sampling requires that any random numbers were generated properly, the units to be sampled from were correctly identified, located, and drawn, and the measurements were made with measurement error at a level not exceeding the required purposes.
4.5 Determination of bias and variance and of risks can be calculated when the selection was only partially determined by random numbers and a frame, but they then require suppositions and assumptions which may be more or less mistaken or require additional data which may introduce experimental error.
1.1 This guide is primarily a statement of principles for the guidance of ASTM technical committees and others in the preparation of a sampling plan for a specific material.
1.2 A system of units is not specified in this standard.
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.4 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
E122 Practice for Calculating Sample Size to Estimate, With Specified Precision, the Average for a Characteristic of a Lot or Process
E141 Practice for Acceptance of Evidence Based on the Results of Probability Sampling
E300 Practice for Sampling Industrial Chemicals
E456 Terminology Relating to Quality and Statistics
E1402 Guide for Sampling Design
ICS Number Code 91.100.01 (Construction materials)
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ASTM E105-21, Standard Guide for Probability Sampling of Materials, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2021, www.astm.orgBack to Top