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Significance and Use
5.1 The basic test method of determining the boiling range of a petroleum product by performing a simple batch distillation has been in use as long as the petroleum industry has existed. It is one of the oldest test methods under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D02, dating from the time when it was still referred to as the Engler distillation. Since the test method has been in use for such an extended period, a tremendous number of historical data bases exist for estimating end-use sensitivity on products and processes.
5.2 The distillation (volatility) characteristics of hydrocarbons have an important effect on their safety and performance, especially in the case of fuels and solvents. The boiling range gives information on the composition, the properties, and the behavior of the fuel during storage and use. Volatility is the major determinant of the tendency of a hydrocarbon mixture to produce potentially explosive vapors.
5.3 The distillation characteristics are critically important for both automotive and aviation gasolines, affecting starting, warm-up, and tendency to vapor lock at high operating temperature or at high altitude, or both. The presence of high boiling point components in these and other fuels can significantly affect the degree of formation of solid combustion deposits.
5.4 Volatility, as it affects rate of evaporation, is an important factor in the application of many solvents, particularly those used in paints.
5.5 Distillation limits are often included in petroleum product specifications, in commercial contract agreements, process refinery/control applications, and for compliance to regulatory rules.
1.1 This test method covers the atmospheric distillation of petroleum products and liquid fuels using a laboratory batch distillation unit to determine quantitatively the boiling range characteristics of such products as light and middle distillates, automotive spark-ignition engine fuels with or without oxygenates (see ), aviation gasolines, aviation turbine fuels, diesel fuels, biodiesel blends up to 20 %, marine fuels, special petroleum spirits, naphthas, white spirits, kerosines, and Grades 1 and 2 burner fuels.
Note 1: An interlaboratory study was conducted in 2008 involving 11 different laboratories submitting 15 data sets and 15 different samples of ethanol-fuel blends containing 25 % volume, 50 % volume, and 75 % volume ethanol. The results indicate that the repeatability limits of these samples are comparable or within the published repeatability of the method (with the exception of FBP of 75 % ethanol-fuel blends). On this basis, it can be concluded that Test Method is applicable to ethanol-fuel blends such as Ed75 and Ed85 (Specification ) or other ethanol-fuel blends with greater than 10 % volume ethanol. See ASTM RR:D02-1694 for supporting data.
1.2 The test method is designed for the analysis of distillate fuels; it is not applicable to products containing appreciable quantities of residual material.
1.3 This test method covers both manual and automated instruments.
1.4 Unless otherwise noted, the values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are provided for information only.
1.5 WARNING—Mercury has been designated by many regulatory agencies as a hazardous substance that can cause serious medical issues. Mercury, or its vapor, has been demonstrated to be hazardous to health and corrosive to materials. Use Caution when handling mercury and mercury-containing products. See the applicable product Safety Data Sheet (SDS) for additional information. The potential exists that selling mercury or mercury-containing products, or both, is prohibited by local or national law. Users must determine legality of sales in their location.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.7 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D97 Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products
D323 Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Reid Method)
D4057 Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D4175 Terminology Relating to Petroleum Products, Liquid Fuels, and Lubricants
D4177 Practice for Automatic Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D4953 Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Gasoline and Gasoline-Oxygenate Blends (Dry Method)
D5190 Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Automatic Method)
D5191 Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products and Liquid Fuels (Mini Method)
D5798 Specification for Ethanol Fuel Blends for Flexible-Fuel Automotive Spark-Ignition Engines
D5842 Practice for Sampling and Handling of Fuels for Volatility Measurement
D5949 Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products (Automatic Pressure Pulsing Method)
D5950 Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products (Automatic Tilt Method)
D5985 Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products (Rotational Method)
D6300 Practice for Determination of Precision and Bias Data for Use in Test Methods for Petroleum Products and Lubricants
D6708 Practice for Statistical Assessment and Improvement of Expected Agreement Between Two Test Methods that Purport to Measure the Same Property of a Material
E1 Specification for ASTM Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers
E77 Test Method for Inspection and Verification of Thermometers
E1272 Specification for Laboratory Glass Graduated Cylinders
E1405 Specification for Laboratory Glass Distillation Flasks
ICS Number Code 75.080 (Petroleum products in general)
|Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.)|
ASTM D86-19, Standard Test Method for Distillation of Petroleum Products and Liquid Fuels at Atmospheric Pressure, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2019, www.astm.orgBack to Top