ASTM D8254 - 19

    Standard Test Method for Flash and Fire Points of Asphalt by Cleveland Open Cup Tester

    Active Standard ASTM D8254 | Developed by Subcommittee: D04.47

    Book of Standards Volume: 04.03


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    Significance and Use

    5.1 The flash point is one measure of the tendency of the test specimen to form a flammable mixture with air under controlled laboratory conditions. It is only one of a number of properties that should be considered in assessing the overall flammability hazard of a material.

    5.2 Flash point is used in shipping and safety regulations to define flammable and combustible materials. Consult the particular regulation involved for precise definitions of these classifications.

    5.3 Flash point can indicate the possible presence of highly volatile and flammable materials in a relatively nonvolatile or nonflammable material.

    5.4 Skin prevention technique involves assembling a restraining ring over a centrally-holed qualitative filter paper that is laid at the bottom of the COC (Cleveland open cup) test cup, prior to introduction of the sample specimen into the cup. This allows a column of the hot sample specimen to move up constantly, through the hole, to the surface of the test specimen so that the surface is maintained in the hot condition to prevent skin formation. (See 9.6).

    5.5 Skin-forming asphalts may not be limited to those which are air blown/oxidized, polymerized or non-homogeneous materials that, although infrequently, exhibit some unique behavior and characteristics, as far as manifestation of flash point is concerned. At the flash point stage, this behavior may involve flame propagation across the surface or just a flame appearing at one or more points on the surface.

    5.6 This test method shall be used to measure and describe the properties of materials, products, or assemblies in response to heat and a test flame under controlled laboratory conditions and shall not be used to describe or appraise the fire hazard or fire risk of materials, products, or assemblies under actual fire conditions. However, results of this test method may be used as elements of a fire risk assessment that takes into account all of the factors that are pertinent to an assessment of the fire hazard for a particular end use.

    5.7 The fire point is one measure of the tendency of the test specimen to support combustion.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method describes the determination of the flash point and fire point of asphalt by a manual Cleveland open cup apparatus or an automated Cleveland open cup apparatus.

    Note 1: Apparatus is the same as described in Test Method D92 with the addition of the materials for the skin prevention technique.

    1.2 This test method is applicable to asphalts that can form a skin, and those that do not form a skin during heat treatment.

    1.3 This test method is applicable to products with flash points above 79 °C (174 °F) and below 400 °C (752 °F), except fuel oils.

    1.4 The precision has been determined over the temperature range of 300 °C to 370 °C (572 °F to 698 °F).

    1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.

    1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific warning statements, see 6.4, 7.1, 11.1, 11.2.3, and 11.3.4.

    1.7 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D92 Test Method for Flash and Fire Points by Cleveland Open Cup Tester

    D140 Practice for Sampling Asphalt Materials

    D4057 Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    D4177 Practice for Automatic Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    D4206 Test Method for Sustained Burning of Liquid Mixtures Using the Small Scale Open-Cup Apparatus

    E1 Specification for ASTM Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers

    E300 Practice for Sampling Industrial Chemicals

    Energy Institute Standard

    Specifications for IP Standard Thermometers

    ISO Standards

    ISO 17034


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 13.220.40 (Ignitability and burning behaviour of materials and products); 75.080 (Petroleum products in general)

    Referencing This Standard
    Link Here
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    DOI: 10.1520/D8254-19

    Citation Format

    ASTM D8254-19, Standard Test Method for Flash and Fire Points of Asphalt by Cleveland Open Cup Tester, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2019, www.astm.org

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