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Significance and Use
5.1 The low-temperature, low-shear-rate viscosity of automatic transmission fluids, gear oils, torque and tractor fluids, power steering fluids, and hydraulic oils are of considerable importance to the proper operation of many mechanical devices. Low-temperature viscosity limits of these fluids are often specified to ensure their suitability for use and are cited in many specifications.
5.2 The manual test method, Test Method , was developed to determine whether an automatic transmission fluid (ATF) would meet low-temperature performance criterion originally defined using a particular model viscometer. The viscosity range covered in the original ATF performance correlation studies was from less than 1000 mPa·s to more than 60 000 mPa·s. The success of the ATF correlation and the development of this test method has over time been applied to other fluids and lubricants such as gear oils, hydraulic fluids, and so forth.
5.3 The viscosity determined by this test method using option A was found to be statistically indistinguishable from Test Method – 16 measurements based on the ILS data to establish this test method’s precision.
5.4 Due to the shorter time at test temperature, results from the abbreviated thermal conditioning (Option B) may differ from results obtained with the 14 h soak at test temperature (Option A). For the samples used in developing this test method, results obtained with the abbreviated procedure (Option B) tended to be less than 14 h soak (Option A). This difference seemed to be larger for products that contained high wax base stock.
1.1 This test method automates the determination of low temperature, low-shear-rate viscosity of driveline and hydraulic fluids, such as automatic transmission fluids, gear oils, hydraulic fluids, and other lubricants. It utilizes a thermoelectrically temperature-controlled sample chamber along with a programmable rotational viscometer. This test method covers a viscosity range of 300 mPa·s to 900 000 mPa·s measured at temperatures from –40 °C to –10 °C.
1.2 The precision data were determined at –40 °C and –26 °C for a viscosity range of 6380 mPa·s to 255 840 mPa·s.
1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard except those noted below.
1.3.1 Exception—The test method uses the SI unit, milliPascal-second (mPa·s), as the unit of viscosity. (1 cP = 1 mPa·s).
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
ISO StandardISO 17034 General requirement for the competence of reference material producers ISO/IEC 17025 General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories
D341 Practice for Viscosity-Temperature Charts for Liquid Petroleum Products
D2162 Practice for Basic Calibration of Master Viscometers and Viscosity Oil Standards
D2983 Test Method for Low-Temperature Viscosity of Automatic Transmission Fluids, Hydraulic Fluids, and Lubricants using a Rotational Viscometer
D5293 Test Method for Apparent Viscosity of Engine Oils and Base Stocks Between 10C and 35C Using Cold-Cranking Simulator
D6708 Practice for Statistical Assessment and Improvement of Expected Agreement Between Two Test Methods that Purport to Measure the Same Property of a Material
D7962 Practice for Determination of Minimum Immersion Depth and Assessment of Temperature Sensor Measurement Drift
E644 Test Methods for Testing Industrial Resistance Thermometers
E2877 Guide for Digital Contact Thermometers
ICS Number Code 75.100 (Lubricants, industrial oils and related products)
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ASTM D8210-19b, Standard Test Method for Automatic Determination of Low-Temperature Viscosity of Automatic Transmission Fluids, Hydraulic Fluids, and Lubricants Using a Rotational Viscometer, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2019, www.astm.orgBack to Top