ASTM D8128 - 17

    Standard Guide for Monitoring Failure Mode Progression in Industrial Applications with Rolling Element Ball Type Bearings

    Active Standard ASTM D8128 | Developed by Subcommittee: D02.96.04

    Book of Standards Volume: 05.05


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    Significance and Use

    5.1 This guide is intended as a guideline for justification of oil test selection for monitoring rolling element ball type bearing conditions in industrial applications. Continuous benchmarking against similar applications is required to ensure lessons learned are continuously implemented.

    5.2 Selection of oil tests for the purpose of detecting rolling element ball type bearing failure modes requires good understanding of equipment design, operating requirements and surrounding conditions. Specifically, detailed knowledge is required on bearing design configuration, dimensional tolerances, load directions, design limitations, lubrication mechanisms, lubricant characteristics, and metallurgy of lubricated surfaces including bearing cages. Equipment criticality and accessibility as well as application of other monitoring techniques (for example, vibration, ultrasound or thermal images) are also critical information in this analysis process. In addition, detailed knowledge on the lubricating oil is paramount.

    5.3 To properly apply the FMEA methodology users must understand the changes the system may encounter during all operating modes, their impact on design functions and available monitoring techniques capable of detecting these changes. To assist this approach, Section 6 will provide extensive descriptions on the rolling element ball type bearing failure modes, their causes and effects.

    5.4 It is recognized that in most industrial applications vibration monitoring is the primary condition monitoring technique applied to detect failure modes, causes and effects in rolling element ball type bearings—while oil analysis is primarily used to monitor the lubricating oil properties. In the recent years, however, there is a trend toward using oil analysis in order to provide earlier detection of some failures of rolling element ball type bearings. This is particularly applicable to complex dynamic systems such as compressors, gearboxes and some gas turbines where obtaining vibration spectra and their analysis may be more difficult.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This guide approaches oil analysis from a failure standpoint and includes both the rolling element ball type bearing wear and fluid deterioration in industrial application.

    1.2 This guide pertains to improving equipment reliability, reducing maintenance costs and enhancing the condition-based maintenance program primarily for industrial machinery by applying analytical methodology to oil analysis program for the purpose of detecting specific failure modes.

    1.3 This guide reinforces requirements for appropriate assembly, operation within the original design envelope as well as the need for condition-based and time-based maintenance.

    1.4 This guide covers the principles of Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) as described in Guide D7874 and its relationship to rolling element ball type bearing wear in industrial application and its fluid deterioration.

    1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    1.6 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D445 Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity)

    D664 Test Method for Acid Number of Petroleum Products by Potentiometric Titration

    D1500 Test Method for ASTM Color of Petroleum Products (ASTM Color Scale)

    D6304 Test Method for Determination of Water in Petroleum Products, Lubricating Oils, and Additives by Coulometric Karl Fischer Titration

    D6595 Test Method for Determination of Wear Metals and Contaminants in Used Lubricating Oils or Used Hydraulic Fluids by Rotating Disc Electrode Atomic Emission Spectrometry

    D7042 Test Method for Dynamic Viscosity and Density of Liquids by Stabinger Viscometer (and the Calculation of Kinematic Viscosity)

    D7414 Test Method for Condition Monitoring of Oxidation in In-Service Petroleum and Hydrocarbon Based Lubricants by Trend Analysis Using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectrometry

    D7483 Test Method for Determination of Dynamic Viscosity and Derived Kinematic Viscosity of Liquids by Oscillating Piston Viscometer

    D7596 Test Method for Automatic Particle Counting and Particle Shape Classification of Oils Using a Direct Imaging Integrated Tester

    D7685 Practice for In-Line, Full Flow, Inductive Sensor for Ferromagnetic and Non-ferromagnetic Wear Debris Determination and Diagnostics for Aero-Derivative and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Bearings

    D7690 Practice for Microscopic Characterization of Particles from In-Service Lubricants by Analytical Ferrography

    D7874 Guide for Applying Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) to In-Service Lubricant Testing

    ISO Standards

    ISO 11500 Hydraulic Fluid PowerDetermination of the particulate contamination level of a liquid sample by automatic particle counting using the light-extinction principle

    ISO 16232-7 Road VehiclesCleanliness of components of fluid circuitsPart 7: Particle sizing and counting by microscopic analysis

    ISO 16700

    ISO 24597 Microbeam analysisScanning electron microscopyMethods of evaluating image sharpness

    ISO 4407


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 75.100 (Lubricants, industrial oils and related products)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 15120000(Lubricants and oils and greases and anti corrosives); 31171504(Ball bearings)


    Referencing This Standard
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    DOI: 10.1520/D8128-17

    Citation Format

    ASTM D8128-17, Standard Guide for Monitoring Failure Mode Progression in Industrial Applications with Rolling Element Ball Type Bearings, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2017, www.astm.org

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