ASTM D8127 - 17e1

    Standard Test Method for Coupled Particulate and Elemental Analysis using X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) for In-Service Lubricants

    Active Standard ASTM D8127 | Developed by Subcommittee: D02.03

    Book of Standards Volume: 05.05


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    Significance and Use

    5.1 It has been shown in many industries that separating information regarding small or dissolved elemental materials in the lubricant from suspended particulate is crucial. In many cases only an overall elemental analysis is provided, which may not capture significant wear or even machinery failure events. Such events are often accompanied by a sudden increase in the production of large particulate, which is suspended in and can be detected in the machinery’s lubricant. This test method specifically targets such particulate, which has historically been difficult to quantify. Users of the technique include numerous military organizations, and maintainers of wind turbines, nuclear power facilities, and offshore rigs.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This automatic wear particle analysis2 test method for in-service lubricants describes using a combination of pore blockage particle counting and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry for the quantitative determination of solid particle counts larger than four (4) micrometres, and elemental content of suspended particulate of iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) in such lubricants.

    1.2 This test method provides for the determination of the elemental content of suspended particulate of Fe greater than 4 μm in the range of 6 mg/kg to 223 mg/kg. Suspended particulate of copper greater than 4 μm is determined in the range of 3.5 mg/kg to 92.4 mg/kg in the lubricant. Total particle count greater than 4 μm is determined in the range of 11 495 particles/mL greater than 4 μm to 2 169 500 particles/mL greater than 4 μm in the lubricant.

    1.3 This test method is applicable to all known in-service lubricants (API Groups I-V) at any stage of degradation.

    1.4 This test method uses an empirical inter-element correction methodology.

    1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

    1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    1.7 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ISO Standards

    ISO 21018:3 Hydraulic fluid powerMonitoring the level of particulate contamination of the fluidPart 3: Use of the filter blockage technique

    ASTM Standards

    D4057 Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    D4177 Practice for Automatic Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    D5854 Practice for Mixing and Handling of Liquid Samples of Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    D7669 Guide for Practical Lubricant Condition Data Trend Analysis

    D7720 Guide for Statistically Evaluating Measurand Alarm Limits when Using Oil Analysis to Monitor Equipment and Oil for Fitness and Contamination

    D7751 Test Method for Determination of Additive Elements in Lubricating Oils by EDXRF Analysis

    D7874 Guide for Applying Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) to In-Service Lubricant Testing

    E1621 Guide for Elemental Analysis by Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 75.100 (Lubricants, industrial oils and related products)

    Referencing This Standard
    Link Here
    Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.)

    DOI: 10.1520/D8127-17E01

    Citation Format

    ASTM D8127-17e1, Standard Test Method for Coupled Particulate and Elemental Analysis using X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) for In-Service Lubricants, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2017, www.astm.org

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