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Significance and Use
3.1 This guide summarizes the test methods used in the elemental analysis of crude oils. Additional information on the significance and use of the test methods quoted in this guide can be found under discussion of individual test methods in Sections through .
3.2 Crude oils are highly complex hydrocarbons also containing some organometallic compounds, inorganic sediment, and water. Nearly 600 individual hydrocarbons, over 200 separate sulfur compounds, and about 40 trace elements have been found in crude oils (. ) Generally, sulfur and nitrogen are the two most abundant elements found in crude oils except for carbon and hydrogen. Most other inorganic elements are present at trace levels (mg/kg). Sulfur, nitrogen, vanadium, nickel, and iron are the most frequently determined elements in the crude oils. Ratios such as vanadium to vanadium + nickel, and iron to vanadium are suggested as being useful for oil type characterizations. Since organometallic compounds are concentrated in the heavy ends of petroleum, transition element concentrations and ratios can serve as excellent oil-oil correlation parameters. Generally, vanadium and nickel content increases with asphaltic content of crude oil (API gravity is an indicator). Lighter crude oils contain lesser amounts of metals (. , )
3.3 Metal complexes called porphyrins are a major component of metallic compounds in crude oils. The principal porphyrin complexes are Ni+2 and VO+2 compounds. There are also other non-porphyrin complexes and other metallic compounds present in crude oils (. , )
3.4 Some typical literature citations in this area are included in the reference section at the end of this guide.
1.1 This guide summarizes the current information about the test methods for elemental and associated analyses used in the analysis of crude oils. This information can be helpful in trade between the buyers and sellers of crude oil. Elemental analyses tests form an important part of quantifying the crude oil quality.
1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.4 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D129 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (General High Pressure Decomposition Device Method)
D482 Test Method for Ash from Petroleum Products
D1548 Test Method for Vanadium in Heavy Fuel Oil1
D1552 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products by High Temperature Combustion and Infrared (IR) Detection or Thermal Conductivity Detection (TCD)
D2622 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
D3227 Test Method for (Thiol Mercaptan) Sulfur in Gasoline, Kerosine, Aviation Turbine, and Distillate Fuels (Potentiometric Method)
D3228 Test Method for Total Nitrogen in Lubricating Oils and Fuel Oils by Modified Kjeldahl Method
D3230 Test Method for Salts in Crude Oil (Electrometric Method)
D4057 Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D4177 Practice for Automatic Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D4294 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum and Petroleum Products by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
D4629 Test Method for Trace Nitrogen in Liquid Hydrocarbons by Syringe/Inlet Oxidative Combustion and Chemiluminescence Detection
D4929 Test Method for Determination of Organic Chloride Content in Crude Oil
D5185 Test Method for Multielement Determination of Used and Unused Lubricating Oils and Base Oils by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES)
D5291 Test Methods for Instrumental Determination of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen in Petroleum Products and Lubricants
D5708 Test Methods for Determination of Nickel, Vanadium, and Iron in Crude Oils and Residual Fuels by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Atomic Emission Spectrometry
D5762 Test Method for Nitrogen in Liquid Hydrocarbons, Petroleum and Petroleum Products by Boat-Inlet Chemiluminescence
D5854 Practice for Mixing and Handling of Liquid Samples of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D5863 Test Methods for Determination of Nickel, Vanadium, Iron, and Sodium in Crude Oils and Residual Fuels by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
D6259 Practice for Determination of a Pooled Limit of Quantitation for a Test Method
D6299 Practice for Applying Statistical Quality Assurance and Control Charting Techniques to Evaluate Analytical Measurement System Performance
D6470 Test Method for Salt in Crude Oils (Potentiometric Method)
D6792 Practice for Quality Management Systems in Petroleum Products, Liquid Fuels, and Lubricants Testing Laboratories
D7260 Practice for Optimization, Calibration, and Validation of Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) for Elemental Analysis of Petroleum Products and Lubricants
D7343 Practice for Optimization, Sample Handling, Calibration, and Validation of X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry Methods for Elemental Analysis of Petroleum Products and Lubricants
D7372 Guide for Analysis and Interpretation of Proficiency Test Program Results
D7455 Practice for Sample Preparation of Petroleum and Lubricant Products for Elemental Analysis
D7482 Practice for Sampling, Storage, and Handling of Hydrocarbons for Mercury Analysis
D7578 Guide for Calibration Requirements for Elemental Analysis of Petroleum Products and Lubricants
D7621 Test Method for Determination of Hydrogen Sulfide in Fuel Oils by Rapid Liquid Phase Extraction
D7622 Test Method for Total Mercury in Crude Oil Using Combustion and Direct Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Method with Zeeman Background Correction
D7623 Test Method for Total Mercury in Crude Oil Using Combustion-Gold Amalgamation and Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Method
D7691 Test Method for Multielement Analysis of Crude Oils Using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES)
D7740 Practice for Optimization, Calibration, and Validation of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for Metal Analysis of Petroleum Products and Lubricants
ICS Number Code 75.040 (Crude petroleum)
UNSPSC Code 15101508(Crude oil)
|Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.)|
ASTM D8056-18, Standard Guide for Elemental Analysis of Crude Oil, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2018, www.astm.orgBack to Top