ASTM D8056 - 16

    Standard Guide for Elemental Analysis of Crude Oil

    Active Standard ASTM D8056 | Developed by Subcommittee: D02.03

    Book of Standards Volume: 05.05


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    Significance and Use

    3.1 This guide summarizes the test methods used in the elemental analysis of crude oils. Additional information on the significance and use of the test methods quoted in this guide can be found under discussion of individual test methods in Sections 8 through 15.

    3.2 Crude oils are highly complex hydrocarbons also containing some organometallic compounds, inorganic sediment, and water. Nearly 600 individual hydrocarbons, over 200 separate sulfur compounds, and about 40 trace elements have been found in crude oils (1).6 Generally, sulfur and nitrogen are the two most abundant elements found in crude oils except for carbon and hydrogen. Most other inorganic elements are present at trace levels (mg/kg). Sulfur, nitrogen, vanadium, nickel, and iron are the most frequently determined elements in the crude oils. Ratios such as vanadium to vanadium + nickel, and iron to vanadium are suggested as being useful for oil type characterizations. Since organometallic compounds are concentrated in the heavy ends of petroleum, transition element concentrations and ratios can serve as excellent oil-oil correlation parameters. Generally, vanadium and nickel content increases with asphaltic content of crude oil (API gravity is an indicator). Lighter crude oils contain lesser amounts of metals (2, 3).

    3.3 Metal complexes called porphyrins are a major component of metallic compounds in crude oils. The principal porphyrin complexes are Ni+2 and VO+2 compounds. There are also other non-porphyrin complexes and other metallic compounds present in crude oils (4, 5).

    3.4 Some typical literature citations in this area are included in the reference section at the end of this guide.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This guide summarizes the current information about the test methods for elemental and associated analyses used in the analysis of crude oils. This information can be helpful in trade between the buyers and sellers of crude oil. Elemental analyses tests form an important part of quantifying the crude oil quality.

    1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

    1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D129 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (General High Pressure Decomposition Device Method)

    D482 Test Method for Ash from Petroleum Products

    D1548 Test Method for Vanadium in Heavy Fuel Oil1

    D1552 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products by High Temperature Combustion and IR Detection

    D2622 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry

    D3227 Test Method for (Thiol Mercaptan) Sulfur in Gasoline, Kerosine, Aviation Turbine, and Distillate Fuels (Potentiometric Method)

    D3228 Test Method for Total Nitrogen in Lubricating Oils and Fuel Oils by Modified Kjeldahl Method

    D3230 Test Method for Salts in Crude Oil (Electrometric Method)

    D4057 Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    D4177 Practice for Automatic Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    D4294 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum and Petroleum Products by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry

    D4629 Test Method for Trace Nitrogen in Liquid Petroleum Hydrocarbons by Syringe/Inlet Oxidative Combustion and Chemiluminescence Detection

    D4929 Test Methods for Determination of Organic Chloride Content in Crude Oil

    D5185 Test Method for Multielement Determination of Used and Unused Lubricating Oils and Base Oils by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES)

    D5291 Test Methods for Instrumental Determination of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen in Petroleum Products and Lubricants

    D5708 Test Methods for Determination of Nickel, Vanadium, and Iron in Crude Oils and Residual Fuels by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Atomic Emission Spectrometry

    D5762 Test Method for Nitrogen in Petroleum and Petroleum Products by Boat-Inlet Chemiluminescence

    D5854 Practice for Mixing and Handling of Liquid Samples of Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    D5863 Test Methods for Determination of Nickel, Vanadium, Iron, and Sodium in Crude Oils and Residual Fuels by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    D6259 Practice for Determination of a Pooled Limit of Quantitation for a Test Method

    D6299 Practice for Applying Statistical Quality Assurance and Control Charting Techniques to Evaluate Analytical Measurement System Performance

    D6470 Test Method for Salt in Crude Oils (Potentiometric Method)

    D6792 Practice for Quality System in Petroleum Products and Lubricants Testing Laboratories

    D7260 Practice for Optimization, Calibration, and Validation of Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) for Elemental Analysis of Petroleum Products and Lubricants

    D7343 Practice for Optimization, Sample Handling, Calibration, and Validation of X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry Methods for Elemental Analysis of Petroleum Products and Lubricants

    D7372 Guide for Analysis and Interpretation of Proficiency Test Program Results

    D7455 Practice for Sample Preparation of Petroleum and Lubricant Products for Elemental Analysis

    D7482 Practice for Sampling, Storage, and Handling of Hydrocarbons for Mercury Analysis

    D7578 Guide for Calibration Requirements for Elemental Analysis of Petroleum Products and Lubricants

    D7621 Test Method for Determination of Hydrogen Sulfide in Fuel Oils by Rapid Liquid Phase Extraction

    D7622 Test Method for Total Mercury in Crude Oil Using Combustion and Direct Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Method with Zeeman Background Correction

    D7623 Test Method for Total Mercury in Crude Oil Using Combustion-Gold Amalgamation and Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Method

    D7691 Test Method for Multielement Analysis of Crude Oils Using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES)

    D7740 Practice for Optimization, Calibration, and Validation of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for Metal Analysis of Petroleum Products and Lubricants


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 75.040 (Crude petroleum)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 15101508(Crude oil)


    Referencing This Standard
    Link Here
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    DOI: 10.1520/D8056-16

    Citation Format

    ASTM D8056-16, Standard Guide for Elemental Analysis of Crude Oil, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2016, www.astm.org

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