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    ASTM D8047 - 19

    Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Engine Oil Aeration Resistance in a Caterpillar C13 Direct-Injected Turbocharged Automotive Diesel Engine

    Active Standard ASTM D8047 | Developed by Subcommittee: D02.B0

    Book of Standards Volume: 05.04

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    Significance and Use

    5.1 Background—Prior to this test method, the ability of an engine lubricant to resist aeration was measured by the engine oil aeration test (EOAT) described in Test Method D6894. The continued availability of engine parts coupled with field service aeration problems led to concerns about the relevance of this test method to newer oil and engine technologies. These concerns prompted the development of this new engine oil aeration test method, based on the Caterpillar C13 engine and termed COAT. This test method aims to provide a more reliable measurement of the ability of a lubricant to resist aeration during engine operation in field service. The engine used is of current technology and the aeration measurement is operator independent.

    5.2 Test Method—This test method evaluates aeration performance under high-engine-speed, zero-load operation in a turbocharged, heavy-duty, four-stroke diesel engine.

    5.3 Use: 

    5.3.1 The tendency of engine oils to aerate in direct-injection, turbocharged diesel engines is influenced by a variety of factors, including engine oil formulation, oil temperature, sump design and capacity, residence time of the oil in the sump, and the design of the pressurized oil systems. In some engine oil-activated systems, the residence time of the oil in the sump is insufficient to allow dissipation of aeration from the oil. As a consequence, aerated oil can be circulated to hydraulically activated components, adversely affecting the engine timing characteristics and engine operation.

    5.3.2 The results from this test method may be compared against specification requirements such as Specification D4485 to ascertain acceptance.

    5.3.3 The design of the test engine used in this test method is representative of many, but not all, diesel engines. This factor, along with the unique operating conditions, needs to be considered when comparing the test results against specification requirements.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method evaluates an engine oil's resistance to aeration in automotive diesel engine service. It is commonly referred to as the Caterpillar-C13 Engine-Oil Aeration Test (COAT). The test is conducted under high-engine-speed (1800 r/min), zero-load conditions using a specified Caterpillar 320 kW, direct-injection, turbocharged, after-cooled, six-cylinder diesel engine designed for heavy-duty, on-highway truck use. This test method was developed as a replacement for Test Method D6894.

    Note 1: Companion test methods used to evaluate engine oil performance for specification requirements are discussed in the latest revision of Specification D4485.

    1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

    1.2.1 Exception—Where there is no direct SI equivalent, for example, screw threads, national pipe threads/diameters, and tubing size.

    1.3 This test method is arranged as follows:





    Referenced Documents




    Summary of Test Method


    Significance and Use




    Engine Liquids and Cleaning Solvent


    Preparation of Apparatus


    Engine Stand Calibration and Non-Reference Oil Tests




    Calculation, Test Validity and Test Results




    Precision and Bias




    ASTM Test Monitoring Center Organization

    Annex A1

    Safety Precautions

    Annex A2

    Engine and Engine Build Parts Kit

    Annex A3

    Oil Temperature Control System

    Annex A4

    Engine Modifications and Instrumentation

    Annex A5

    External Oil System

    Annex A6

    Aeration Measurement System

    Annex A7

    Specified Units and Formats

    Annex A8

    ASTM TMC: Calibration Procedures

    Annex A9

    ASTM TMC: Maintenance Activities

    Annex A10

    ASTM TMC: Related Information

    Annex A11

    Engine Break-in and Silicon Passivation Procedure

    Annex A12

    Schedule for Taking Oil Samples and Carrying out Analyses

    Annex A13

    Determination of Operational Validity

    Annex A14

    Specification for PC-10 ULSD Fuel

    Annex A15

    Typical System Configuration

    Appendix X1

    1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. See Annex A2 for general safety precautions.

    1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D86 Test Method for Distillation of Petroleum Products and Liquid Fuels at Atmospheric Pressure

    D93 Test Methods for Flash Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Tester

    D97 Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products

    D130 Test Method for Corrosiveness to Copper from Petroleum Products by Copper Strip Test

    D235 Specification for Mineral Spirits (Petroleum Spirits) (Hydrocarbon Dry Cleaning Solvent)

    D445 Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity)

    D482 Test Method for Ash from Petroleum Products

    D524 Test Method for Ramsbottom Carbon Residue of Petroleum Products

    D613 Test Method for Cetane Number of Diesel Fuel Oil

    D664 Test Method for Acid Number of Petroleum Products by Potentiometric Titration

    D975 Specification for Diesel Fuel

    D976 Test Method for Calculated Cetane Index of Distillate Fuels

    D1319 Test Method for Hydrocarbon Types in Liquid Petroleum Products by Fluorescent Indicator Adsorption

    D2274 Test Method for Oxidation Stability of Distillate Fuel Oil (Accelerated Method)

    D2709 Test Method for Water and Sediment in Middle Distillate Fuels by Centrifuge

    D3524 Test Method for Diesel Fuel Diluent in Used Diesel Engine Oils by Gas Chromatography

    D4052 Test Method for Density, Relative Density, and API Gravity of Liquids by Digital Density Meter

    D4175 Terminology Relating to Petroleum Products, Liquid Fuels, and Lubricants

    D4485 Specification for Performance of Active API Service Category Engine Oils

    D5185 Test Method for Multielement Determination of Used and Unused Lubricating Oils and Base Oils by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES)

    D5186 Test Method for Determination of the Aromatic Content and Polynuclear Aromatic Content of Diesel Fuels By Supercritical Fluid Chromatography

    D5453 Test Method for Determination of Total Sulfur in Light Hydrocarbons, Spark Ignition Engine Fuel, Diesel Engine Fuel, and Engine Oil by Ultraviolet Fluorescence

    D6078 Test Method for Evaluating Lubricity of Diesel Fuels by the Scuffing Load Ball-on-Cylinder Lubricity Evaluator (SLBOCLE)

    D6894 Test Method for Evaluation of Aeration Resistance of Engine Oils in Direct-Injected Turbocharged Automotive Diesel Engine

    D7549 Test Method for Evaluation of Heavy-Duty Engine Oils under High Output ConditionsCaterpillar C13 Test Procedure

    E29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data to Determine Conformance with Specifications

    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 75.100 (Lubricants, industrial oils and related products)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 15121501(Engine oil); 26101504(Diesel engines)

    Referencing This Standard
    Link Here
    Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.)

    DOI: 10.1520/D8047-19

    Citation Format

    ASTM D8047-19, Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Engine Oil Aeration Resistance in a Caterpillar C13 Direct-Injected Turbocharged Automotive Diesel Engine, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2019, www.astm.org

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