ASTM D7972 - 14

    Standard Test Method for Flexural Strength of Manufactured Carbon and Graphite Articles Using Three-Point Loading at Room Temperature

    Active Standard ASTM D7972 | Developed by Subcommittee: D02.F0

    Book of Standards Volume: 05.05


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    Significance and Use

    4.1 This test method provides a framework for material development, quality control, characterization, and design data generation purposes. The user needs to assess the applicability of the method on the specific material and for the intended use, as shown by the interlaboratory study.

    4.2 This test method determines the maximum loading on a graphite specimen with simple beam geometry in three–point bending, and it provides a means for the calculation of flexural strength at ambient temperature and environmental conditions.

    4.3 The flexure stress is computed based on simple beam theory with assumptions that the material is isotropic and homogeneous, the moduli of elasticity in tension and compression are identical, and the material is linearly elastic. For materials with large grains, the minimum specimen dimension should be significantly larger than the maximum grain size (see Guide D7775).

    4.4 Flexural strength of a group of test specimens is influenced by several parameters associated with the test procedure. Such factors include the loading rate, test environment, specimen size, specimen preparation, and test fixtures. Specimen sizes and fixtures should be chosen to reduce errors due to material variability or testing parameters, such as friction and non-parallelism of specimen surfaces.

    4.5 The flexural strength of a manufactured graphite or carbon material is dependent on both its inherent resistance to fracture and the size and severity of flaws. Variations in these cause a natural scatter in test results for a sample of test specimens. Fractographic analysis of fracture surfaces, although beyond the scope of this standard, is highly recommended for all purposes, especially if the data will be used for design as discussed in Practices C1239 and C1322.

    4.6 The three-point test configuration exposes only a very small portion of the specimen to the maximum stress. Therefore, three-point flexural strengths are likely to be much greater than four-point flexural strengths. Three-point flexure has some advantages. It uses simpler test fixtures, allowing small specimen testing and fracture toughness measurements. However, four-point flexure is preferred and recommended for most characterization purposes.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method covers determination of the flexural strength of manufactured carbon and graphite articles using a square, rectangular or cylindrical beam in three-point loading at room temperature.

    1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

    1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    C78 Test Method for Flexural Strength of Concrete (Using Simple Beam with Third-Point Loading)

    C559 Test Method for Bulk Density by Physical Measurements of Manufactured Carbon and Graphite Articles

    C1161 Test Method for Flexural Strength of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperature

    C1239 Practice for Reporting Uniaxial Strength Data and Estimating Weibull Distribution Parameters for Advanced Ceramics

    C1322 Practice for Fractography and Characterization of Fracture Origins in Advanced Ceramics

    D7775 Guide for Measurements on Small Graphite Specimens

    E4 Practices for Force Verification of Testing Machines

    E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 71.100.99 (Other products of the chemical industry)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code


    Referencing This Standard
    Link Here
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    DOI: 10.1520/D7972-14

    Citation Format

    ASTM D7972-14, Standard Test Method for Flexural Strength of Manufactured Carbon and Graphite Articles Using Three-Point Loading at Room Temperature, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2014, www.astm.org

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