ASTM D7940 - 14

    Standard Practice for Analysis of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) by Fiber-Coupled Raman Spectroscopy

    Active Standard ASTM D7940 | Developed by Subcommittee: D03.12

    Book of Standards Volume: 05.06

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    Significance and Use

    5.1 The composition of liquefied gas fuels (LNG, LPG) is important for custody transfer and production. Compositional determination is used to calculate the heating value, and it is important to ensure regulatory compliance. Compositional determination is also used to optimize the efficiency of liquefied hydrocarbon gas production and ensure the quality of the processed fluids.

    5.2 Alternatives to compositional measurement using Raman spectroscopy are described in Test Method D1945, Practice D1946, and Test Method D7833.

    5.3 The advantage of this standard over existing standards mentioned in 5.2 above, is that Raman spectroscopy can determine composition by directly measuring the liquefied natural gas. Unlike chromatography, no vaporization step is necessary. Since incorrect operation of on-line vaporizers can lead to poor precision and accuracy, elimination of the vaporization step offers a significant improvement in the analysis of LNG.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This standard practice is for both on-line and laboratory instrument-based determination of composition for liquefied natural gas (LNG) using Raman spectroscopy. The basic methodology can also be applied to other light hydrocarbon mixtures in either liquid or gaseous states, if the needs of the application are met, although the rest of this practice refers specifically to liquids. From the composition, gas properties such as heating value and the Wobbe index may be calculated. The components commonly determined according to this test method are CH4, C2H6, C3H8, i-C4H10, n-C4H10, iC5H12, n-C5H12, neo-C5H12, N2, O2. The applicable range of this standard is 200 ppmv to 100 mol %. Components heavier than C5 are not measured as part of this practice.

    Note 1: Raman spectroscopy does not directly quantify the component percentages of noble gases, however, inerts can be calculated indirectly by subtracting the sum of the other species from 100 %.

    1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

    1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D1945 Test Method for Analysis of Natural Gas by Gas Chromatography

    D1946 Practice for Analysis of Reformed Gas by Gas Chromatography

    D3588 Practice for Calculating Heat Value, Compressibility Factor, and Relative Density of Gaseous Fuels

    D4150 Terminology Relating to Gaseous Fuels

    D7833 Test Method for Determination of Hydrocarbons and Non-Hydrocarbon Gases in Gaseous Mixtures by Gas Chromatography

    E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method

    BS EN Standards

    BS EN 60079-28 Explosive Atmospheres. Protection of Equipment and Transmission Systems using Optical Radiation

    BS EN 60825-1 Safety of Laser Products Part 1: Equipment Classification, Requirements and Users Guide

    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 75.060 (Natural gas)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 15111511(Liquefied natural gas LNG)

    Referencing This Standard
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    DOI: 10.1520/D7940-14

    Citation Format

    ASTM D7940-14, Standard Practice for Analysis of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) by Fiber-Coupled Raman Spectroscopy, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2014,

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