ASTM D792 - 20

    Standard Test Methods for Density and Specific Gravity (Relative Density) of Plastics by Displacement

    Active Standard ASTM D792 | Developed by Subcommittee: D20.70

    Book of Standards Volume: 08.01


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    Significance and Use

    5.1 The specific gravity or density of a solid is a property that is conveniently measured to identify a material, to follow physical changes in a sample, to indicate degree of uniformity among different sampling units or specimens, or to indicate the average density of a large item.

    5.2 Changes in density of a single material are due to localized differences in crystallinity, loss of plasticizer, absorption of solvent, or to other causes. It is possible that portions of a sample differ in density because of their differences in crystallinity, thermal history, porosity, and composition (types or proportions of resin, plasticizer, pigment, or filler).

    5.3 Density is useful for calculating strength-weight and cost-weight ratios.

    1. Scope

    1.1 These test methods describe the determination of the specific gravity (relative density) and density of solid plastics in forms such as sheets, rods, tubes, or molded items.

    1.2 Two test methods are described:

    1.2.1 Test Method A—For testing solid plastics in water, and

    1.2.2 Test Method B—For testing solid plastics in liquids other than water.

    1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard.

    1.4 Warning—Mercury has been designated by many regulatory agencies as a hazardous substance that can cause serious medical issues. Mercury, or its vapor, has been demonstrated to be hazardous to health and corrosive to materials. Use caution when handling mercury and mercury-containing products. See the applicable product Safety Data Sheet (SDS) for additional information. The potential exists that selling mercury or mercury-containing products, or both, is prohibited by local or national law. Users must determine legality of sales in their location.

    1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    Note 1: This standard is not equivalent to ISO 1183–1 Method A. This test method provides more guidelines on sample weight and dimension. ISO 1183-1 allows testing at an additional temperature of 27 ± 2°C.

    1.6 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D618 Practice for Conditioning Plastics for Testing

    D891 Test Methods for Specific Gravity, Apparent, of Liquid Industrial Chemicals

    D4968 Practice for Annual Review of Test Methods and Specifications for Plastics

    D6436 Guide for Reporting Properties for Plastics and Thermoplastic Elastomers

    E12 Terminology Relating to Density and Specific Gravity of Solids, Liquids, and Gases

    E456 Terminology Relating to Quality and Statistics

    E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method

    E2251 Specification for Liquid-in-Glass ASTM Thermometers with Low-Hazard Precision Liquids

    E2935 Practice for Conducting Equivalence Testing in Laboratory Applications


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 83.080.01 (Plastics in general)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code


    Referencing This Standard
    Link Here
    Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.)

    DOI: 10.1520/D0792-20

    Citation Format

    ASTM D792-20, Standard Test Methods for Density and Specific Gravity (Relative Density) of Plastics by Displacement, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2020, www.astm.org

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