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Significance and Use
5.1 Chamber testing is a globally-accepted method for measuring the emissions of VOCs from building materials and products. Chamber emission test data have a variety of uses including identification and labeling of products as low-VOC emitting for improved indoor air quality, manufacturing quality control, and development of new and improved products for reduced VOC emissions.
5.2 Currently, an inter-laboratory study (ILS) is the most frequently used method for assessing the bias of a laboratory’s VOC emission test results. An ILS typically relies on a VOC source with an uncharacterized emission rate. Consequently, a large number of participants (Practice recommends 30, with a minimum requirement of six) are needed to produce the data required to calculate a laboratory’s performance relative to the central tendency and distribution of the results for all participants. Due to the participant size requirement and other logistical issues, an ILS involves significant planning and coordination to achieve useful results.
5.3 Inter-laboratory studies have often shown significant variations in measured VOC emission rates among participating laboratories for a given source. Variability in the emission rate from the source often is suspected to be a contributing factor, but it is difficult to be certain of the cause. Thus, better characterized sources are needed for evaluating the ability of laboratories to generate VOC emission test results with acceptable bias as discussed in .
5.4 Proficiency tests (PT) for VOC emission testing typically focus on a laboratory’s analytical capabilities. For example, an analytical PT relies on a certified standard prepared by an accredited vendor as a reference. A laboratory analyzes the PT sample without knowledge of its concentration value. Acceptance of the results is judged by the deviation from the known value. Use of reference materials can expand analytical PT schemes to also include the impacts of test sample handling, test specimen preparation, chamber operation, and chamber air sampling.
5.5 Laboratories accredited under ISO/IEC 17025 are required to derive uncertainty estimates for their test results. Typically, this is done by developing an uncertainty budget and estimating an expanded uncertainty (ISO/IEC Guide 98, Practice ). An uncertainty budget for a VOC emission test combines relevant sources of measurement uncertainty for all steps in the testing process from test specimen preparation through air sample analysis. A more efficient approach to determining the overall bias and precision for a VOC emission test is with repeated testing of a reference material (see ISO/IEC Guide 98, ISO Guide 33). This guide addresses the estimation of bias through comparison of the measured value to the reference material value. The precision is determined through repeated testing of multiple reference materials, ideally from the same production batch (see Practices and ).
5.6 Other uses of an emissions reference material include verifying quality control emission measurements of manufactured product batches and providing traceability for third party certification.
1.1 This guide provides procedures for using a reference material with a known emission rate of a volatile organic compound (VOC) to estimate the bias associated with a VOC emission chamber test.
1.2 This guide may be used to assess measurements of VOC emissions conducted in a variety of environmental chambers, such as small-scale chambers, full-scale chambers, emission cells, and micro-scale chambers.
1.3 This guide may be used to assess measurements of VOC emissions from a variety of sources including “dry” materials (for example, carpet, floor tile and particleboard) and “wet” materials (for example, paint and cleaning products).
1.4 This guide can be used to support quality control efforts by emissions testing laboratories, third party accreditation of testing laboratories participating in emissions testing programs, and quality control efforts by manufacturers of building and other materials.
1.5 This guide may be used to support the determination of precision and bias of other commonly used VOC emission standards including Guide , Test Method , ISO 16000-9, ANSI/BIFMA M7.1, and CDPH/EHLB/Standard Method V1.1.
1.6 This guide also describes the attributes of a suitable emission reference material and the different methods available to independently determine the reference material’s VOC emission rate.
1.7 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.8 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D1356 Terminology Relating to Sampling and Analysis of Atmospheres
D5116 Guide for Small-Scale Environmental Chamber Determinations of Organic Emissions from Indoor Materials/Products
D5197 Test Method for Determination of Formaldehyde and Other Carbonyl Compounds in Air (Active Sampler Methodology)
D5466 Test Method for Determination of Volatile Organic Chemicals in Atmospheres (Canister Sampling Methodology)
D6007 Test Method for Determining Formaldehyde Concentrations in Air from Wood Products Using a Small-Scale Chamber
D6196 Practice for Selection of Sorbents, Sampling, and Thermal Desorption Analysis Procedures for Volatile Organic Compounds in Air
D6299 Practice for Applying Statistical Quality Assurance and Control Charting Techniques to Evaluate Analytical Measurement System Performance
D6330 Practice for Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds (Excluding Formaldehyde) Emissions from Wood-Based Panels Using Small Environmental Chambers Under Defined Test Conditions
D6617 Practice for Laboratory Bias Detection Using Single Test Result from Standard Material
D6670 Practice for Full-Scale Chamber Determination of Volatile Organic Emissions from Indoor Materials/Products
D6803 Practice for Testing and Sampling of Volatile Organic Compounds (Including Carbonyl Compounds) Emitted from Paint Using Small Environmental Chambers
D7143 Practice for Emission Cells for the Determination of Volatile Organic Emissions from Indoor Materials/Products
D7339 Test Method for Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds Emitted from Carpet using a Specific Sorbent Tube and Thermal Desorption / Gas Chromatography
D7440 Practice for Characterizing Uncertainty in Air Quality Measurements
D7706 Practice for Rapid Screening of VOC Emissions from Products Using Micro-Scale Chambers
E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
E741 Test Method for Determining Air Change in a Single Zone by Means of a Tracer Gas Dilution
E1333 Test Method for Determining Formaldehyde Concentrations in Air and Emission Rates from Wood Products Using a Large Chamber
ICS Number Code 13.040.20 (Ambient atmospheres); 71.080.01 (Organic chemicals in general)
UNSPSC Code 77121501(Air quality management)
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ASTM D7911-14, Standard Guide for Using Reference Material to Characterize Measurement Bias Associated with Volatile Organic Compound Emission Chamber Test, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2014, www.astm.orgBack to Top