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Significance and Use
5.1 This guide is intended for the developers or sponsors of new aviation gasolines or additives to describe the data requirements necessary to support the development of specifications for these new products by ASTM members. The ultimate goal of the data generated in accordance with this guide is to provide an understanding of the performance of the new fuel or additive within the property constraints and compositional bounds of the proposed specification criteria.
5.2 This guide is not an approval process. It is intended to describe test and analysis requirements necessary to generate data to support specification development. This guide does not address the approval process for ASTM International standards.
5.3 This guide will reduce the uncertainty and risk to developers or sponsors of new aviation gasolines or additives by describing the test and analysis requirements necessary to proceed with the development of an ASTM International specification for aviation gasoline or specification revision for an aviation gasoline additive. There are certain sections within this guide that do not specify an exact number of data points required. For example, requires viscosity to be measured from freezing point to room temperature; , , and require measurements over the operating temperature range; and require measurements versus temperature. In these cases, the developers or sponsors of new aviation gasolines or additives should attempt to generate data close to the upper and lower boundaries indicated. If no boundary is specified (for example, generate data versus temperature), then data at the widest practical test limits should be generated. A minimum of three data points is required in all cases (for example, upper, middle, lower), while five or more data points are preferred.
5.4 This guide does not purport to specify an all-inclusive listing of test and analysis requirements to achieve ASTM International approval of a specification or specification revision. The final requirements will be dependent upon the specific formulation and performance of the candidate fuel and be determined by the ASTM International task forces and committees charged with overseeing the specification development.
5.5 This guide is intended to describe data to be used to make a determination of the suitability of the proposed fuel or additive for use in existing or future aircraft and engines, but not necessarily for use in all existing or future aircraft and engines.
5.6 This guide does not describe data requirements of other approving authorities, such as national aviation regulatory authorities, or of other organizations or industry associations. However, the data generated in the conduct of the procedure may be useful for other purposes or other organizations.
5.7 Over 200 000 piston-engine aircraft rely on Specification lead-containing aviation gasoline (avgas) for safe operation. There has been an increase in the research and development of alternatives to Specification gasolines as a result of environmental and economic concerns.
1.1 This guide provides procedures to develop data for use in research reports for new aviation gasolines or new aviation gasoline additives.
1.2 This data is intended to be used by the ASTM subcommittee to make a determination of the suitability of the fuel for use as an aviation fuel in either a fleet-wide or limited capacity, and to make a determination that the proposed properties and criteria in the associated standard specification provide the necessary controls to ensure this fuel maintains this suitability during high-volume production.
1.3 These research reports are intended to support the development and issuance of new specifications or specification revisions for these products. Guidance to develop ASTM International standard specifications for aviation gasoline is provided in Subcommittee J on Aviation Fuels Operating Procedures, Annex A6, “Guidelines for the Development and Acceptance of a New Aviation Fuel Specification for Spark-Ignition Reciprocating Engines.”
1.4 The procedures, tests, selection of materials, engines, and aircraft detailed in this guide are based on industry expertise to give appropriate data for review. Because of the diversity of aviation hardware and potential variation in fuel/additive formulations, not every aspect may be encompassed and further work may be required. Therefore, additional data beyond that described in this guide may be requested by the ASTM task force, Subcommittee J, or Committee D02 upon review of the specific composition, performance, or other characteristics of the candidate fuel or additive.
1.5 While it is beyond the scope of this guide, investigation of the future health and environmental impacts of the new aviation gasoline or new aviation gasoline additive and the requirements of environmental agencies is recommended.
1.6 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard.
1.6.1 Exception—Some industry standard methodologies utilize imperial units as their primary system (permeability; ).
1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.8 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D86 Test Method for Distillation of Petroleum Products and Liquid Fuels at Atmospheric Pressure
D97 Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products
D130 Test Method for Corrosiveness to Copper from Petroleum Products by Copper Strip Test
D156 Test Method for Saybolt Color of Petroleum Products (Saybolt Chromometer Method)
D323 Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Reid Method)
D381 Test Method for Gum Content in Fuels by Jet Evaporation
D395 Test Methods for Rubber PropertyCompression Set
D412 Test Methods for Vulcanized Rubber and Thermoplastic ElastomersTension
D445 Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity)
D471 Test Method for Rubber PropertyEffect of Liquids
D664 Test Method for Acid Number of Petroleum Products by Potentiometric Titration
D873 Test Method for Oxidation Stability of Aviation Fuels (Potential Residue Method)
D892 Test Method for Foaming Characteristics of Lubricating Oils
D909 Test Method for Supercharge Rating of Spark-Ignition Aviation Gasoline
D910 Specification for Leaded Aviation Gasolines
D924 Test Method for Dissipation Factor (or Power Factor) and Relative Permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of Electrical Insulating Liquids
D943 Test Method for Oxidation Characteristics of Inhibited Mineral Oils
D1002 Test Method for Apparent Shear Strength of Single-Lap-Joint Adhesively Bonded Metal Specimens by Tension Loading (Metal-to-Metal)
D1056 Specification for Flexible Cellular MaterialsSponge or Expanded Rubber
D1094 Test Method for Water Reaction of Aviation Fuels
D1298 Test Method for Density, Relative Density, or API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Liquid Petroleum Products by Hydrometer Method
D1331 Test Methods for Surface and Interfacial Tension of Solutions of Paints, Solvents, Solutions of Surface-Active Agents, and Related Materials
D1414 Test Methods for Rubber O-Rings
D1500 Test Method for ASTM Color of Petroleum Products (ASTM Color Scale)
D1621 Test Method for Compressive Properties of Rigid Cellular Plastics
D2240 Test Method for Rubber PropertyDurometer Hardness
D2344/D2344M Test Method for Short-Beam Strength of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials and Their Laminates
D2386 Test Method for Freezing Point of Aviation Fuels
D2500 Test Method for Cloud Point of Petroleum Products and Liquid Fuels
D2583 Test Method for Indentation Hardness of Rigid Plastics by Means of a Barcol Impressor
D2622 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
D2624 Test Methods for Electrical Conductivity of Aviation and Distillate Fuels
D2700 Test Method for Motor Octane Number of Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel
D2717 Test Method for Thermal Conductivity of Liquids
D2896 Test Method for Base Number of Petroleum Products by Potentiometric Perchloric Acid Titration
D3339 Test Method for Acid Number of Petroleum Products by Semi-Micro Color Indicator Titration
D3359 Test Methods for Rating Adhesion by Tape Test
D3525 Test Method for Gasoline Fuel Dilution in Used Gasoline Engine Oils by Wide-Bore Capillary Gas Chromatography
D3652 Test Method for Thickness of Pressure-Sensitive Tapes
D3762 Test Method for Adhesive-Bonded Surface Durability of Aluminum (Wedge Test)
D4052 Test Method for Density, Relative Density, and API Gravity of Liquids by Digital Density Meter
D4057 Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D4294 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum and Petroleum Products by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
D4308 Test Method for Electrical Conductivity of Liquid Hydrocarbons by Precision Meter
D4809 Test Method for Heat of Combustion of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels by Bomb Calorimeter (Precision Method)
D4865 Guide for Generation and Dissipation of Static Electricity in Petroleum Fuel Systems
D5188 Test Method for Vapor-Liquid Ratio Temperature Determination of Fuels (Evacuated Chamber and Piston Based Method)
D5191 Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products and Liquid Fuels (Mini Method)
D5453 Test Method for Determination of Total Sulfur in Light Hydrocarbons, Spark Ignition Engine Fuel, Diesel Engine Fuel, and Engine Oil by Ultraviolet Fluorescence
D5762 Test Method for Nitrogen in Liquid Hydrocarbons, Petroleum and Petroleum Products by Boat-Inlet Chemiluminescence
D5972 Test Method for Freezing Point of Aviation Fuels (Automatic Phase Transition Method)
D6053 Test Method for Determination of Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Content of Electrical Insulating Varnishes
D6227 Specification for Unleaded Aviation Gasoline Containing a Non-hydrocarbon Component
D6304 Test Method for Determination of Water in Petroleum Products, Lubricating Oils, and Additives by Coulometric Karl Fischer Titration
D6424 Practice for Octane Rating Naturally Aspirated Spark Ignition Aircraft Engines
D6469 Guide for Microbial Contamination in Fuels and Fuel Systems
D6812 Practice for Ground-Based Octane Rating Procedures for Turbocharged/Supercharged Spark Ignition Aircraft Engines
D7042 Test Method for Dynamic Viscosity and Density of Liquids by Stabinger Viscometer (and the Calculation of Kinematic Viscosity)
D7096 Test Method for Determination of the Boiling Range Distribution of Gasoline by Wide-Bore Capillary Gas Chromatography
D7220 Test Method for Sulfur in Automotive, Heating, and Jet Fuels by Monochromatic Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
D7547 Specification for Hydrocarbon Unleaded Aviation Gasoline
D7719 Specification for High Aromatic Content Unleaded Hydrocarbon Aviation Gasoline
E659 Test Method for Autoignition Temperature of Chemicals
E1259 Practice for Evaluation of Antimicrobials in Liquid Fuels Boiling Below 390C
EI StandardsEI 1529 Aviation fuelling hose and hose assemblies EI 1581 Specification and qualification procedures for aviation jet fuel filter/separators EI 1583 EI 1590
MODUK StandardMODUK DEF STAN 80-97
ICS Number Code 75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)
UNSPSC Code 15101504(Aviation fuel); 15111700(Fuel additives)
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ASTM D7826-20a, Standard Guide for Evaluation of New Aviation Gasolines and New Aviation Gasoline Additives, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2020, www.astm.orgBack to Top