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Significance and Use
4.1 Self-cementing coal fly ashes are suitable materials for the stabilization of soils, recycled pavement materials and road surface gravel. Fly ash stabilization can result in improved properties, including increased stiffness, strength and freeze-thaw durability; reduced hydraulic conductivity, plasticity, and swelling; and increased control of soil compressibility and moisture. Fly ash stabilized materials (FASM) may be used in roadway construction, such as working platforms during construction, stabilized subgrade, subbase, and base layers. Fly ash stabilization can also be used in limiting settlement of fills below buildings.
4.2 This practice is intended for use with self-cementing fly ash that can be used individually or along with other stabilizing admixtures to improve soil properties.
4.3 The practice describes the unique design considerations that may apply to stabilization of soils and soil-like materials with self-cementing coal fly ash. The requirements for stabilization of specific materials may vary due to local conditions or the intended use of the stabilized material, or both.
4.3.1 This practice is not intended to limit the flexibility of design in stabilization. The degree of success attained in stabilization with coal fly ash is highly dependent on the particular combination of soil, fly ash, and other additives and the construction procedure used. The selection of appropriate materials, applicable tests, acceptance criteria, and specification is the responsibility of the design engineer.
4.4 The test methods in this practice are intended for the determination of mechanical properties of FASM. The characterization of mechanical property improvement with self-cementing fly ash will assist in the evaluation of the fly ash stabilized materials.
4.5 The use of self-cementing fly ash in geotechnical engineering applications may be regulated by state and local codes. The codes should be consulted.
1.1 This practice covers procedures for the design of stabilization of soil and soil-like materials using self-cementing coal fly ash for roadway applications, treatment of expansive subgrade or organic subgrade, and limiting settlement of fills below buildings. The coal fly ash covered in this method includes self-cementing fly ashes described in Specification .
1.2 The testing and engineering practices for self-cementing coal fly ash are similar to generally accepted practices for soil stabilization with fly ash and other pozzolans that require lime.
1.3 The test methods in this practice are applicable to the characterization of mechanical properties of in situ mixed self-cementing fly ash stabilized materials. Follow Practice for sampling purposes. There are other related fly ash stabilization standards. Practice can be used to characterize the general types of fly ash for use in soil stabilization. Specification can be used to evaluate the performance of fly ash and other pozzolans that require lime soil stabilization. Guide can be used to characterize properties of fly ash and bottom ash in structural fills and related design and construction considerations.
1.4 Units—The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measure are included in this standard.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.6 This practice offers a set of instructions for performing one or more specific operations. This document cannot replace education or experience and should be used in conjunction with professional judgment. Not all aspects of this practice may be applicable in all circumstances. This ASTM standard is not intended to represent or replace the standard of care by which the adequacy of a given professional service must be judged, nor should this document be applied without consideration of a project’s many unique aspects. The word “Standard” in the title of this document means only that the document has been approved through the ASTM consensus process.
1.7 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
C593 Specification for Fly Ash and Other Pozzolans for Use With Lime for Soil Stabilization
C597 Test Method for Pulse Velocity Through Concrete
D75/D75M Practice for Sampling Aggregates
D653 Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
D698 Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort (12,400 ft-lbf/ft3 (600 kN-m/m3))
D1557 Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2,700 kN-m/m3))
D1883 Test Method for California Bearing Ratio (CBR) of Laboratory-Compacted Soils
D4609 Guide for Evaluating Effectiveness of Admixtures for Soil Stabilization
D5102 Test Methods for Unconfined Compressive Strength of Compacted Soil-Lime Mixtures
D5239 Practice for Characterizing Fly Ash for Use in Soil Stabilization
D5918 Test Methods for Frost Heave and Thaw Weakening Susceptibility of Soils
E2201 Terminology for Coal Combustion Products
E2277 Guide for Design and Construction of Coal Ash Structural Fills
TRB (Transportation Research Board) StandardNCHRP 1-28A
AASHTO (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials) StandardAASHTO T 307
ICS Number Code 93.020 (Earth works. Excavations. Foundation construction. Underground works)
UNSPSC Code 11111501(Soil)
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ASTM D7762-18e1, Standard Practice for Design of Stabilization of Soil and Soil-Like Materials with Self-Cementing Fly Ash, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2018, www.astm.orgBack to Top