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This specification details the physical and chemical requirements for pyrolysis liquid biofuels produced from biomass that are intended for use in industrial burners equipped to handle these types of fuels. The type of biofuel covered here is not intended for use in residential heaters, small commercial boilers, engines, or marine applications. It shall remain uniform in medium-term storage and shall not separate into layers due to gravity. Properly sampled test specimens shall undergo test procedures to determine their adherence to the following requirements: gross heat of combustion; water content; pyrolysis solids content; kinematic viscosity; density; sulfur content; ash content; pH; flash point; and pour point.
This abstract is a brief summary of the referenced standard. It is informational only and not an official part of the standard; the full text of the standard itself must be referred to for its use and application. ASTM does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents of this abstract are accurate, complete or up to date.
1.1 This specification covers grades of pyrolysis liquid biofuel produced from biomass intended for use in various types of fuel-burning equipment under various climatic and operating conditions. These grades are described as follows:
1.1.1 Grade G is intended for use in industrial burners equipped to handle the pyrolysis liquid biofuels meeting the requirements listed for Grade G in Table 1. The pyrolysis liquid biofuel listed under Grade G in Table 1 is not intended for use in residential heaters, small commercial boilers, engines, or marine applications.
1.1.2 Grade D is intended for use in commercial/industrial burners requiring lower solids and ash content and which are equipped to handle the pyrolysis liquid biofuels meeting the requirements listed for Grade D in Table 1. The pyrolysis liquid biofuel listed under Grade D in Table 1 is not intended for use in residential heaters, engines, or marine applications not modified to handle these types of fuels.
Note 1—For information on the significance of the physical, chemical, and performance properties identified in this specification, see Appendix X1.
1.2 This specification is for use in contracts for the purchase of pyrolysis liquid biofuel and for guidance of consumers of this type of fuel.
1.3 Nothing in this specification should preclude observance of national or local regulations, which may be more restrictive.
Note 2—The generation and dissipation of static electricity may create problems in the handling of pyrolysis liquid biofuel. For more information on the subject, see Guide D4865.
1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.4.1 Exception—BTU units are included for information only in 18.104.22.168.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
TABLE 1 Detailed Requirements for Pyrolysis Liquid Biofuels
|Property||Test Method||Grade G||Grade D|
|Gross Heat of Combustion, MJ/kg, min||D240||15||15|
|Water Content, % mass, max||E203||30||30|
|Pyrolysis Solids Content, % mass, max||D7579||2.5||0.25|
|Kinematic Viscosity at 40°C, mm2/s, max||D445A||125||125|
|Density at 20°C, kg/dm3||D4052||1.1–1.3||1.1–1.3|
|Sulfur Content, % mass, max||D4294||0.05||0.05|
|Ash Content, % mass, max||D482||0.25||0.15|
|Flash Point,°C, min||D93, Procedure B||45||45|
|Pour Point,°C, max||D97||–9||–9|
A Without filtering.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D93 Test Methods for Flash Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Tester
D97 Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products
D240 Test Method for Heat of Combustion of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels by Bomb Calorimeter
D396 Specification for Fuel Oils
D445 Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity)
D482 Test Method for Ash from Petroleum Products
D4052 Test Method for Density, Relative Density, and API Gravity of Liquids by Digital Density Meter
D4294 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum and Petroleum Products by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
D4865 Guide for Generation and Dissipation of Static Electricity in Petroleum Fuel Systems
D5854 Practice for Mixing and Handling of Liquid Samples of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D6469 Guide for Microbial Contamination in Fuels and Fuel Systems
D7579 Test Method for Pyrolysis Solids Content in Pyrolysis Liquids by Filtration of Solids in Methanol
E70 Test Method for pH of Aqueous Solutions With the Glass Electrode
E203 Test Method for Water Using Volumetric Karl Fischer Titration
ICS Number Code 75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)
UNSPSC Code 15101800(Plant based liquid fuels or biofuels)
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ASTM D7544-12, Standard Specification for Pyrolysis Liquid Biofuel, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2012, www.astm.orgBack to Top