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Significance and Use
5.1 The seismic downhole method provides a designer with information pertinent to the seismic wave velocities of the materials in question (). The P-wave and S-wave velocities are directly related to the important geotechnical elastic constants of Poisson’s ratio, shear modulus, bulk modulus, and Young’s modulus. Accurate in-situ P-wave and S-wave velocity profiles are essential in geotechnical foundation designs. These parameters are used in both analyses of soil behavior under both static and dynamic loads where the elastic constants are input variables into the models defining the different states of deformations such as elastic, elasto-plastic, and failure. Another important use of estimated shear wave velocities in geotechnical design is in the liquefaction assessment of soils.
5.2 A fundamental assumption inherent in the test methods is that a laterally homogeneous medium is being characterized. In a laterally homogeneous medium the source wave train trajectories adhere to Snell’s law of refraction. Another assumption inherent in the test methods is that the stratigraphic medium to be characterized can have transverse isotropy. Transverse isotropy is a particularly simple form of anisotropy because velocities only vary with vertical incidence angle and not with azimuth. By placing and actuating the seismic source at offsets rotated 90° in plan view, it may be possible to confirm that a more complex model is needed to evaluate the field data.
5.3 In soft saturated soil, where the P-wave velocity of the soil is less than the P-wave velocity of water, which is about 1450 m/s [4750 ft/s], the P-wave velocity measurement will primarily be controlled by the P-wave velocity of water and a direct measurement of the soil P-wave velocity will not be possible.
Note 1: The quality of the results produced by this standard is dependent on the competence of the personnel performing it, and the suitability of the equipment and facilities. Agencies that meet the criteria of Practice are generally considered capable of competent and objective testing/sampling/inspection/etc. Users of this standard are cautioned that compliance with Practice does not in itself assure reliable results. Reliable results depend on many factors; Practice provides a means of evaluating some of those factors.
1.1 These test methods address compression (P) and shear (S) waves propagating in the downward direction in a nearly vertical plane. The seismic waves can be denoted as PV or PZ for a downward propagating compression wave and as SVH or SZX for downward propagating and horizontally polarized shear wave. The SVH or SZX is also referred to as an SH wave. These test methods are limited to the determination of the interval velocities from arrival times and relative arrival times of compression (P) waves and vertically (SV) and horizontally (SH) oriented shear (S) seismic waves which are generated near surface and travel down to an array of vertically installed seismic sensors. Two methods are discussed, which include using either one or two downhole sensors (receivers).
1.2 Various applications of the data will be addressed and acceptable procedures and equipment, such as seismic sources, receivers, and recording systems will be discussed. Other items addressed include source-to-receiver spacing, drilling, casing, grouting, a procedure for borehole installation, and conducting actual borehole and seismic cone tests. Data reduction and interpretation is limited to the identification of various seismic wave types, apparent velocity relation to true velocity, example computations, use of Snell's law of refraction, and assumptions.
1.3 There are several acceptable devices that can be used to generate a high-quality P or SV source wave or both and SH source waves. Several types of commercially available receivers and recording systems can also be used to conduct an acceptable downhole survey. Special consideration should be given to the types of receivers used and their configuration to provide an output that accurately reflects the input motion. These test methods primarily concern the actual test procedure, data interpretation, and specifications for equipment which will yield uniform test results.
1.4 All recorded and calculated values shall conform to the guide for significant digits and rounding established in Practice .
1.4.1 The procedures used to specify how data are collected/recorded and calculated in these test methods are regarded as the industry standard. In addition, they are representative of the significant digits that should generally be retained. The procedures used do not consider material variation, purpose for obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any considerations for the user’s objectives; and it is common practice to increase or reduce significant digits of reported data to be commensurate with these considerations. It is beyond the scope of these test methods to consider significant digits used in analysis methods for engineering design.
1.4.2 Measurements made to more significant digits or better sensitivity than specified in these test methods shall not be regarded a nonconformance with this standard.
1.5 Units—The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.
1.5.1 The gravitational system of inch-pound units is used when dealing with inch-pound units. In this system, the pound (lbf) represents a unit of force (weight), while the unit for mass is slugs. The rationalized slug unit is not given, unless dynamic (F = ma) calculations are involved.
1.5.2 It is common practice in the engineering/construction profession to concurrently use pounds to represent both a unit of mass (lbm) and of force (lbf). This implicitly combines two separate systems of units; that is, the absolute system and the gravitational system. It is scientifically undesirable to combine the use of two separate sets of inch-pound units within a single standard. As stated, this standard includes the gravitational system of inch-pound units and does not use/present the slug unit for mass. However, the use of balances or scales recording pounds of mass (lbm) or recording density in lbm/ft3 shall not be regarded as nonconformance with this standard.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.7 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D653 Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
D3740 Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
D4428/D4428M Test Methods for Crosshole Seismic Testing
D5778 Test Method for Electronic Friction Cone and Piezocone Penetration Testing of Soils
D6026 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
ICS Number Code 17.160 (Vibrations, shock and vibration measurement)
|Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.)|
ASTM D7400 / D7400M-19, Standard Test Methods for Downhole Seismic Testing, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2019, www.astm.orgBack to Top