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These test methods cover the determination of the maximum dry unit weight and water content range for effective compaction of granular soils. A vibrating hammer is used to impart a surcharge and compactive effort to the soil specimen.
Formerly under the jurisdiction of Committee D18 on Soil and Rock, this standard was withdrawn in February 2017 in accordance with section 10.6.3 of the Regulations Governing ASTM Technical Committees, which requires that standards shall be updated by the end of the eighth year since the last approval date.
1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the maximum dry unit weight and water content range for effective compaction of granular soils. A vibrating hammer is used to impart a surcharge and compactive effort to the soil specimen.
1.2 These test methods apply to soils with up to 35 %, by dry mass, passing a No. 200 (75-μm) sieve if the portion passing the No. 40 (425-μm) sieve is nonplastic.
1.3 These test methods apply to soils with up to 15 %, by dry mass, passing a No. 200 (75-μm) sieve if the portion passing the No. 40 (425-μm) sieve exhibits plastic behavior.
1.4 These test methods apply to soils in which 100 %, by dry mass, passes the 2-in. (50-mm) sieve.
1.5 These test methods apply only to soils (materials) that have 30 % or less, by dry mass of their particles retained on the ¾-in. (19.0-mm) sieve.
Note 1—For relationships between unit weights and water contents of soils with 30 % or less, by dry mass, of material retained on the ¾-in. (19.0-mm) sieve to unit weights and water contents of the fraction passing the ¾-in. (19.0-mm) sieve, see Practice D 4718
1.6 These test methods will typically produce a higher maximum dry density/unit weight for the soils specified in 1.2 and 1.3 than that obtained by impact compaction in which a well-defined moisture-density relationship is not apparent. However, for some soils containing more than 15 % fines, the use of impact compaction (Test Methods D 698
1.7 Two alternative test methods are provided, with the variation being in mold size. The method used shall be as indicated in the specification for the material being tested. If no method is specified, the choice should be based on the maximum particle size of the material.
1.7.1 Method A:
18.104.22.168 Mold—6-in. (152.4-mm) diameter.
22.214.171.124 Material—Passing ¾-in. (19.0-mm) sieve and consistent with the requirements of 1.2 and 1.3.
126.96.36.199 Time of Compaction per layer—60 ± 5 s.
1.7.2 Method B:
188.8.131.52 Mold—11-in. (279.4-mm) diameter.
184.108.40.206 Material—Passing 2-in. (50-mm) sieve and consistent with the requirements of 1.2 and 1.3.
220.127.116.11 Time of Compaction per layer—52 ± 5 s at each of 8 locations.
Note 2—Method A (with the correction procedure of Practice D 4718
Note 3—Results have been found to vary slightly when a material is tested at the same compaction effort in different size molds.
1.7.3 Either method, A or B, can be performed with the material in an oven-dried or wet/saturated state, whichever provides the maximum dry unit weight.
1.8 If the test specimen contains more than 5 % by mass of oversize fraction (coarse fraction) and the material will not be included in the test, corrections must be made to the unit weight and water content of the test specimen or to the appropriate field in-place density test specimen using Practice D 4718
1.9 This test method causes a minimal amount of degradation (particle breakdown) of the soil. When degradation occurs, typically there is an increase in the maximum unit weight obtained, and comparable test results may not be obtained when different size molds are used to test a given soil. For soils where degradation is suspected, a sieve analysis of the specimen should be performed before and after the compaction test to determine the amount of degradation.
1.10 Units—The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.
1.11 The vibrating hammer test method may be performed in the field or in the laboratory.
1.12 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
C127 Test Method for Density, Relative Density (Specific Gravity), and Absorption of Coarse Aggregate
C136 Test Method for Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates
C778 Specification for Sand
D422 Test Method for Particle-Size Analysis of Soils
D653 Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
D698 Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort (12 400 ft-lbf/ft3 (600 kN-m/m3))
D854 Test Methods for Specific Gravity of Soil Solids by Water Pycnometer
D1140 Test Methods for Amount of Material in Soils Finer than No. 200 (75-m) Sieve
D1557 Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2,700 kN-m/m3))
D2216 Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
D2487 Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)
D2488 Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)
D3282 Practice for Classification of Soils and Soil-Aggregate Mixtures for Highway Construction Purposes
D3740 Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
D4220 Practices for Preserving and Transporting Soil Samples
D4253 Test Methods for Maximum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils Using a Vibratory Table
D4254 Test Methods for Minimum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils and Calculation of Relative Density
D4318 Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils
D4718 Practice for Correction of Unit Weight and Water Content for Soils Containing Oversize Particles
D4753 Guide for Evaluating, Selecting, and Specifying Balances and Standard Masses for Use in Soil, Rock, and Construction Materials Testing
D6026 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
E11 Specification for Woven Wire Test Sieve Cloth and Test Sieves
E145 Specification for Gravity-Convection and Forced-Ventilation Ovens
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials StandardsM231-95-UL Standard Specification for Weighing Devices Used in the Testing of Materials
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ASTM D7382-08, Standard Test Methods for Determination of Maximum Dry Unit Weight and Water Content Range for Effective Compaction of Granular Soils Using a Vibrating Hammer (Withdrawn 2017), ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2008, www.astm.orgBack to Top