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    ASTM D7294 - 13(2021)

    Standard Guide for Collecting Treatment Process Design Data at a Contaminated Site—A Site Contaminated with Chemicals of Interest

    Active Standard ASTM D7294 | Developed by Subcommittee: D34.01.01

    Book of Standards Volume: 11.04

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    Significance and Use

    4.1 This guide allows the decision maker to determine which remedial treatment processes are and are not applicable to remediate an area of soil, surface water, or ground water that contains contaminants of concern.

    4.2 This guide provides the data to make cost comparisons of the remedial treatment processes.

    4.3 Analysis of treatment process design data can often be performed at the site with field instruments and test kits.

    4.4 Tables 1 and 2 are a guide to selecting and obtaining physical and chemical treatment process design data. Data marked with an “X” is needed to evaluate alternatives and select a remedial treatment process. Once the remedial process is selected, the additional data that are needed to design the selected remedial treatment process are marked with an “O.” It may be advisable to also collect the data marked with an “O” during the initial sampling event to minimize sampling trips to the site.

    4.5 Tables 3 and 4 list laboratory and field methods for analyzing this data. More than one analytical method may be listed. The most suitable method must be chosen for each application.

    (A) This table was developed jointly by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste Center of Expertise and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Technical Support Project—Engineering Forum. Additional information and methods can be found in 40 CFR 136, EPA SW-846, and Standard Methods for Evaluation of Water and Wastewater, most current edition.
    (B) Estimated sensitivity and detection ranges are method/kit specific. Detection ranges are estimates. Verify these methods are suitable for the samples at this site. Consult the method or manufacturer's catalogs for details.
    (C) Spectrometers and meters are instruments that can be used to analyze for many parameters. Kits cost much less, but usually analyze for only one parameter. There are many manufacturers of field test equipment. Verify that the field methods are applicable to the medium at this site.
    (D) USEPA 600/4-84-017, The Determination of Inorganic Anions in Water by Ion Chromatography, March 1984.
    (E) Parameters that should be analyzed in the field.
    (F) USEPA 600/4-79/020, Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes, March 1983.
    (G) American Public Health Association, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Use the most recently published methods.
    (H) Use of test kits—Guide D5463.
    (I) Use Nernst equation to check ORP field data.
    (J) USEPA SW-846, Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Wastes, Physical/Chemical Methods, 3rd Edition, Updates I, IIA, IIB, III, IIIA, IVA, and IVB.
    (K) A USGS method for ferrous iron analysis.
    (L) Analysis of Dissolved Methane, Ethane, and Ethylene in Ground Water by a Standard Gas Chromatohraphic Technique, developed by USEPA National Risk Management Laboratory, Ada, OK.
    (A) Standard Methods (SM) for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 18th edition, 1992.
    (B) Except for soil oxygen and soil CO2, soil samples can be analyzed in an offsite laboratory.
    (C) Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods (SW-846).
    (D) Field test kits are often available that test for multiple parameters. There are several manufacturers of field soil test kits.
    (E) Sample digestion required prior to analysis—see water parameters table.
    (F) These metals can also be analyzed by atomic adsorption.
    (G) Screening level.
    (H) Estimate with Walkley-Black TOC and subtract other substances included in the TOC analysis.
    (I) USEPA/600/4-79/020, Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes, March 1983.

    4.6 This guide does not address sampling for contaminants of concern and sampling locations. See EM 200-1-2 Technical Project Planning (TPP) under Engineering Manuals6 for information on sampling contaminants of concern. It is recommended that the treatment process design sampling be coordinated with the sampling for chemicals of concern to minimize duplicate sampling and trips to the site.

    4.7 This guide does not address physical and chemical properties related to contaminant transport. This is addressed in Guide D5730.

    4.8 This guide does not address why the data is needed to evaluate each treatment technology. This information is addressed in the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (FRTR) site at http://www.frtr.gov in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers guidance documents at http://www.usace.army.mil/inet/usace-docs/ and the United Facilities Guide Specifications (UFGS) available at http://www.ccb.org/.

    4.9 This guide does not address Quality Assurance / Quality Control (QA/QC) or sampling design strategy. See U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Engineering Regulation ER 1110-1-263 and Engineering Manual EM 200-1-36 for information on QA/QC. This needs to be addressed in the Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP).

    1. Scope

    1.1 This guide lists the physical and chemical treatment processes design data needed to evaluate, select, and design treatment processes for remediation of contaminated sites. This data is listed in Tables 1 and 2. Much of these data can be obtained and analyzed at the site with instruments and test kits.

    1.2 It is recommended that this guide be used in conducting environmental site assessments and Remedial Investigations/Feasibility Studies (RI/FS) and selections of remedy in U.S. Code of Federal Regulations 40 CFR 300.430.

    1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    1.4 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D422 Test Method for Particle-Size Analysis of Soils

    D1067 Test Methods for Acidity or Alkalinity of Water

    D1293 Test Methods for pH of Water

    D1498 Test Method for Oxidation-Reduction Potential of Water

    D2216 Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass

    D2434 Test Method for Permeability of Granular Soils (Constant Head)

    D3590 Test Methods for Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen in Water

    D3921 Test Method For Oil and Grease and Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Water

    D4327 Test Method for Anions in Water by Suppressed Ion Chromatography

    D4564 Test Method for Density and Unit Weight of Soil in Place by the Sleeve Method

    D4611 Test Method for Specific Heat of Rock and Soil

    D4943 Test Method for Shrinkage Factors of Cohesive Soils by the Water Submersion Method

    D4972 Test Methods for pH of Soils

    D5084 Test Methods for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Saturated Porous Materials Using a Flexible Wall Permeameter

    D5334 Test Method for Determination of Thermal Conductivity of Soil and Soft Rock by Thermal Needle Probe Procedure

    D5463 Guide for Use of Test Kits to Measure Inorganic Constituents in Water

    D5730 Guide for Site Characterization for Environmental Purposes With Emphasis on Soil, Rock, the Vadose Zone and Groundwater

    D6836 Test Methods for Determination of the Soil Water Characteristic Curve for Desorption Using Hanging Column, Pressure Extractor, Chilled Mirror Hygrometer, or Centrifuge

    E953/E953M Practice for Fusibility of Refuse-Derived Fuel (RDF) Ash

    Other Documents

    Remediation Technologies Screening Matrix and Refe

    U.S. Code of Federal Regulations 40 CFR 300.430 Av

    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 71.020 (Production in the chemical industry)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 77101500(Environmental impact assessment)

    Referencing This Standard
    Link Here
    Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.)

    DOI: 10.1520/D7294-13R21

    Citation Format

    ASTM D7294-13(2021), Standard Guide for Collecting Treatment Process Design Data at a Contaminated Site—A Site Contaminated with Chemicals of Interest, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2021, www.astm.org

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