ASTM D7187 - 20

    Standard Test Method for Measuring Mechanistic Aspects of Scratch/Mar Behavior of Paint Coatings by Nanoscratching

    Active Standard ASTM D7187 | Developed by Subcommittee: D01.23

    Book of Standards Volume: 06.01


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    Significance and Use

    4.1 This test addresses two limitations in existing mar tests such as Test Methods D1044, D3363, D5178, D6037, and D6279, namely:

    4.1.1 Measured damage is caused by hundreds of contacts with differing contact geometries making it difficult or impossible for mechanical quantities (force, displacement) at the contact points to be reliably determined.

    4.1.2 The damage is evaluated using subjective visual assessments, which provide only a qualitative sense of wear with little information about mar mechanisms.

    4.2 This test provides a quantitative assessment of a paint coating’s mechanistic aspects of scratch/mar behavior in various conditions. The ability to control testing variables such as loading rate, speed, and temperature allow the study of the scratch/mar behavior in a variety of environments.

    4.3 This test method is particularly suitable for measurement of paint coatings on laboratory test panels.

    4.4 The accuracy and precision of scratch/mar performance may be significantly influenced by coating surface non-uniformity and irregularities.

    4.5 A correlation has been observed between good mar resistance in field studies and a combination of high plastic resistance and high fracture resistance. When coatings have had either high plastic resistance and low fracture resistance, or low plastic resistance and high fracture resistance, there have been contradictory results in field studies.

    4.6 Mar resistance characterizes the ability of the coating to resist light damage. The difference between mar and scratch resistance is that mar is related to only the relatively fine surface scratches which spoil the appearance of the coating. The mechanistic aspects of mar resistance depend on a complex interplay between visco-elastic and thermal recovery, yield or plastic flow, and micro-fracture. Polymers are challenging because they exhibit a range of mechanical properties from near liquid through rubber materials to brittle solids. The mechanical properties are rate and temperature dependent and visco-elastic recovery can cause scratches to change with time. One such test for evaluating polymeric coatings and plastics is Test Method D7027.

    4.7 Since this method measures mechanical qualities, such as forces and displacements (deformations) during the damage making process, rate dependence, temperature dependence, and visco-elastic-plastic recovery can be further investigated and visual impacts of damage can be related to deformation mechanisms.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method covers a nanoscratch method for determining the resistance of paint coatings on smooth flat surfaces to scratch/mar.

    1.2 Other methods used in scratch/mar evaluation physically scratch or mar a sample’s surface with single or multiple contact cutting, and then use visual inspection to assign a ranking. It has been recognized that loss of appearance is mainly due to surface damage created. This method quantitatively and objectively measures scratch/mar behavior by making the evaluation process two steps with emphasis on surface damage. Step one is to find the relationship between damage shape and size and external input (such as forces, contact geometry, and deformation). Step two is to relate damage shape and size to visual loss of luster. The first step is covered by this method; in addition, a survey in the appendix provides an example of an experiment to relate the damage to the change in luster.

    1.3 There are three elementary deformation mechanisms: elastic deformation, plastic deformation and fracture; only the latter two contribute significantly to mar. This method evaluates scratch/mar based on the latter two damage mechanisms.

    1.4 Although this standard was developed for paint coatings, it can also be applied to other types of similar polymer-based coatings, for example, lacquers, varnishes, glazes and other decorative and protective layers deposited on hard substrates.

    1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.

    1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    1.7 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D609 Practice for Preparation of Cold-Rolled Steel Panels for Testing Paint, Varnish, Conversion Coatings, and Related Coating Products

    D823 Practices for Producing Films of Uniform Thickness of Paint, Coatings and Related Products on Test Panels

    D1005 Test Method for Measurement of Dry-Film Thickness of Organic Coatings Using Micrometers

    D1044 Test Method for Resistance of Transparent Plastics to Surface Abrasion by the Taber Abraser

    D3363 Test Method for Film Hardness by Pencil Test

    D3924 Specification for Standard Environment for Conditioning and Testing Paint, Varnish, Lacquer, and Related Materials

    D5178 Test Method for Mar Resistance of Organic Coatings

    D6037 Test Methods for Dry Abrasion Mar Resistance of High Gloss Coatings

    D6279 Test Method for Rub Abrasion Mar Resistance of High Gloss Coatings

    D7027 Test Method for Evaluation of Scratch Resistance of Polymeric Coatings and Plastics Using an Instrumented Scratch Machine

    D7091 Practice for Nondestructive Measurement of Dry Film Thickness of Nonmagnetic Coatings Applied to Ferrous Metals and Nonmagnetic, Nonconductive Coatings Applied to Non-Ferrous Metals

    G171 Test Method for Scratch Hardness of Materials Using a Diamond Stylus


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 87.040 (Paints and varnishes)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 31211500(Paints and primers)


    Referencing This Standard
    Link Here
    Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.)

    DOI: 10.1520/D7187-20

    Citation Format

    ASTM D7187-20, Standard Test Method for Measuring Mechanistic Aspects of Scratch/Mar Behavior of Paint Coatings by Nanoscratching, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2020, www.astm.org

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