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    ASTM D6839 - 21a

    Standard Test Method for Hydrocarbon Types, Oxygenated Compounds, Benzene, and Toluene in Spark Ignition Engine Fuels by Multidimensional Gas Chromatography

    Active Standard ASTM D6839 | Developed by Subcommittee: D02.04.0L

    Book of Standards Volume: 05.03


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    Significance and Use

    5.1 A knowledge of spark-ignition engine fuel composition is useful for regulatory compliance, process control, and quality assurance.

    5.2 The quantitative determination of olefins and other hydrocarbon types in spark-ignition engine fuels is required to comply with government regulations.

    5.3 This test method is not applicable to M85 fuels, which contain 85 % methanol.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method covers the quantitative determination of saturates, olefins, aromatics, and oxygenates in spark-ignition engine fuels by multidimensional gas chromatography. Each hydrocarbon type can be reported either by carbon number (see Note 1) or as a total.

    Note 1: There can be an overlap between the C9 and C10 aromatics; however, the total is accurate. Isopropyl benzene is resolved from the C8 aromatics and is included with the other C9 aromatics.

    1.2 This test method is not intended to determine individual hydrocarbon components except benzene and toluene.

    1.3 This test method is divided into two parts, Part A and Part B.

    1.3.1 Part A is applicable to the concentration ranges for which precision (Table 10 and Table 11) has been obtained:

    Property

    Units

    Applicable range

    Total aromatics

    Volume %

    19.32 to 46.29

    Total saturates

    Volume %

    26.85 to 79.31

    Total olefins

    Volume %

    0.40 to 26.85

    Oxygenates

    Volume %

    0.61 to 9.85

    Oxygen Content

    Mass %

    2.01 to 12.32

    Benzene

    Volume %

    0.38 to 1.98

    Toluene

    Volume %

    5.85 to 31.65

    Methanol

    Volume %

    1.05 to 16.96

    Ethanol

    Volume %

    0.50 to 17.86

    MTBE

    Volume %

    0.99 to 15.70

    ETBE

    Volume %

    0.99 to 15.49

    TAME

    Volume %

    0.99 to 5.92

    TAEE

    Volume %

    0.98 to 15.59

    1.3.1.1 This test method is specifically developed for the analysis of automotive motor gasoline that contains oxygenates, but it also applies to other hydrocarbon streams having similar boiling ranges, such as naphthas and reformates.

    1.3.2 Part B describes the procedure for the analysis of oxygenated groups (ethanol, methanol, ethers, C3 to C5 alcohols) in ethanol fuels containing an ethanol volume fraction between 50 % and 85 % (17 % to 29 % oxygen). The gasoline is diluted with an oxygenate-free component to lower the ethanol content to a value below 20 % before the analysis by GC. The diluting solvent should not be considered in the integration, this makes it possible to report the results of the undiluted sample after normalization to 100 %.

    1.4 Oxygenates as specified in Test Method D4815 have been verified not to interfere with hydrocarbons. Within the round robin sample set, the following oxygenates have been tested: MTBE, ethanol, ETBE, TAME, iso-propanol, isobutanol, tert-butanol and methanol. Applicability of this test method has also been verified for the determination of n-propanol, acetone, and di-isopropyl ether (DIPE). However, no precision data have been determined for these compounds.

    1.4.1 Other oxygenates can be determined and quantified using Test Method D4815 or D5599.

    1.5 The method is harmonized with ISO 22854.

    1.6 This test method includes a relative bias section for U.S. EPA spark-ignition engine fuel regulations for total olefins reporting based on Practice D6708 accuracy assessment between Test Method D6839 and Test Method D1319 as a possible Test Method D6839 alternative to Test Method D1319. The Practice D6708 derived correlation equation is only applicable for fuels in the total olefins concentration range from 0.2 % to 18.2 % by volume as measured by Test Method D6839. The applicable Test Method D1319 range for total olefins is from 0.6 % to 20.6 % by volume as reported by Test Method D1319.

    1.7 This test method includes a relative bias section for reporting benzene based on Practice D6708 accuracy assessment between Test Method D6839 and Test Method D3606 (Procedure B) as a possible Test Method D6839 alternative to Test Method D3606 (Procedure B). The Practice D6708 derived correlation equation is only applicable for fuels in the benzene concentration range from 0.52 % to 1.67 % by volume as measured by Test Method D6839.

    1.8 This test method includes a relative bias section for reporting benzene based on Practice D6708 accuracy assessment between Test Method D6839 and Test Method D5580 as a possible Test Method D6839 alternative to Test Method D5580. The Practice D6708 derived correlation equation is only applicable for fuels in the benzene concentration range from 0.52 % to 1.67 % by volume as measured by Test Method D6839.

    1.9 This test method includes a relative bias section for reporting benzene based on Practice D6708 accuracy assessment between Test Method D6839 and Test Method D5769 as a possible Test Method D6839 alternative to Test Method D5769. The Practice D6708 derived correlation equation is only applicable for fuels in the benzene concentration range from 0.52 % to 1.67 % by volume as measured by Test Method D6839.

    1.10 This test method includes a relative bias section for reporting total aromatics based on Practice D6708 accuracy assessment between Test Method D6839 and Test Method D1319 as a possible Test Method D6839 alternative to Test Method D1319. The Practice D6708 derived correlation equation is only applicable for fuels in the total aromatics concentration range from 14.3 % to 31.2 % by volume as measured by Test Method D6839.

    1.11 This test method includes a relative bias section for reporting total aromatics based on Practice D6708 accuracy assessment between Test Method D6839 and Test Method D5580 as a possible Test Method D6839 alternative to Test Method D5580. The Practice D6708 derived correlation equation is only applicable for fuels in the total aromatics concentration range from 14.3 % to 31.2 % by volume as measured by Test Method D6839.

    1.12 This test method includes a relative bias section for reporting total aromatics based on Practice D6708 accuracy assessment between Test Method D6839 and Test Method D5769 as a possible Test Method D6839 alternative to Test Method D5769. The Practice D6708 derived correlation equation is only applicable for fuels in the total aromatics concentration range from 14.3 % to 30.1 % by volume as measured by Test Method D6839.

    1.13 This test method includes a relative bias section for reporting total olefins based on Practice D6708 accuracy assessment between Test Method D6839 and Test Method D6550 as a possible Test Method D6839 alternative to Test Method D6550. The Practice D6708 derived correlation equation is only applicable for fuels in the total olefins concentration range from 1.5 % to 17.2 % by volume as measured by Test Method D6839.

    1.14 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

    1.15 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    1.16 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D1319 Test Method for Hydrocarbon Types in Liquid Petroleum Products by Fluorescent Indicator Adsorption

    D3606 Test Method for Determination of Benzene and Toluene in Spark Ignition Fuels by Gas Chromatography

    D4307 Practice for Preparation of Liquid Blends for Use as Analytical Standards

    D4815 Test Method for Determination of MTBE, ETBE, TAME, DIPE, tertiary-Amyl Alcohol and C1 to C4 Alcohols in Gasoline by Gas Chromatography

    D5580 Test Method for Determination of Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, p/m-Xylene, o-Xylene, C9 and Heavier Aromatics, and Total Aromatics in Finished Gasoline by Gas Chromatography

    D5599 Test Method for Determination of Oxygenates in Gasoline by Gas Chromatography and Oxygen Selective Flame Ionization Detection

    D5769 Test Method for Determination of Benzene, Toluene, and Total Aromatics in Finished Gasolines by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    D6550 Test Method for Determination of Olefin Content of Gasolines by Supercritical-Fluid Chromatography

    D6708 Practice for Statistical Assessment and Improvement of Expected Agreement Between Two Test Methods that Purport to Measure the Same Property of a Material

    Other Documents

    ISO4259 Petroleum productsDetermination and application of precision data in relation to methods of test Available from American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 25 W. 43rd St., 4th Floor, New York, NY 10036, http://www.ansi.org.


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 71.040.40 (Chemical analysis)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 15101506(Gasoline or Petrol)


    Referencing This Standard
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    DOI: 10.1520/D6839-21A

    Citation Format

    ASTM D6839-21a, Standard Test Method for Hydrocarbon Types, Oxygenated Compounds, Benzene, and Toluene in Spark Ignition Engine Fuels by Multidimensional Gas Chromatography, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2021, www.astm.org

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