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Significance and Use
5.1 This practice is intended to provide the user with information on the appropriate methods and procedures for installing prepacked screen monitoring wells by direct push methods. The monitoring wells may be used to obtain representative water quality samples for aqueous phase contaminants or other analytes of interest, either organic or inorganic (. The monitoring wells may also be used to obtain information on the potentiometric surface of the local aquifer and properties of the formation such as hydraulic conductivity or transmissivity. , )
5.2 Use of direct push methods to install monitoring wells can significantly reduce the amount of potentially hazardous drill cuttings generated during well installation at contaminated sites. This may significantly reduce cost of an environmental site investigation and groundwater monitoring program. Minimizing generation of hazardous waste also reduces the exposure hazards to site workers, local residents, and the environment.
5.3 Direct push methods for monitoring well installation are limited to use in unconsolidated formations such as alluvial/stream sediments, glacial deposits, and beach type sediments. Direct push methods are generally successful at penetrating clays, silts, sands and some gravel. Deposits such as soils with thick caliche layers, or glacial tills with large cobbles or boulders may be difficult or impossible to penetrate to the desired depth. Direct push methods are not designed for penetration of consolidated bedrock such as limestone, granite or gneiss.
Note 1: The quality of the result produced by this standard is dependent on the competence of the personnel performing it, and the suitability of the equipment and facilities used. Agencies that meet the criteria of Practice are generally considered capable of competent and objective testing/sampling/inspection/etc. Users of this standard are cautioned that compliance with Practice does not in itself assure reliable results. Reliable results depend on many factors; Practice provides a means of evaluating some of those factors.
Practice was developed for agencies engaged in the laboratory testing and/or inspection of soils and rock. As such, it is not totally applicable to agencies performing this field practice. However, user of this practice should recognize that the framework of Practice is appropriate for evaluating the quality of an agency performing this practice. Currently there is no known qualifying national authority that inspects agencies that perform this practice.
1.1 This practice is based on recognized methods by which direct push monitoring wells may be designed and installed for the purpose of detecting the presence or absence of a contaminant, and collecting representative groundwater quality data. The design standards and installation procedures herein are applicable to both detection and assessment monitoring programs for facilities.
1.2 The recommended monitoring well design, as presented in this practice, is based on the assumption that the objective of the program is to obtain representative groundwater information and water quality samples from aquifers. Monitoring wells constructed following this practice should produce relatively turbidity-free samples for granular aquifer materials ranging from gravels to silty sand.
1.3 Direct push procedures are not applicable for monitoring well installation under all geologic and soil conditions (for example, installation in bedrock). Other rotary drilling procedures are available for penetration of these consolidated materials for well construction purposes (Guide ). Additionally, under some geologic conditions it may be appropriate to install monitoring wells without a filter pack (, ). Guide may be referred to for additional information on these and other methods for the direct push installation of groundwater monitoring wells.
1.4 The values stated in either inch-pound units or SI units presented in brackets are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.
1.5 All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Practice , unless superseded by this standard.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.7 This practice offers a set of instructions for performing one or more specific operations. This document cannot replace education or experience and should be used in conjunction with professional judgement. Not all aspects of this practice may be applicable in all circumstances. This ASTM standard is not intended to represent or replace the standard of care by which the adequacy of a given professional service must be judged, nor should this document be applied without consideration of the project's many unique aspects. The word “Standard” in the title of this document means only that the document has been approved through the ASTM consensus process.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D653 Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
D1586 Test Method for Penetration Test (SPT) and Split-Barrel Sampling of Soils
D3740 Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
D4043 Guide for Selection of Aquifer Test Method in Determining Hydraulic Properties by Well Techniques
D4044 Test Method for (Field Procedure) for Instantaneous Change in Head (Slug) Tests for Determining Hydraulic Properties of Aquifers
D4104 Test Method (Analytical Procedure) for Determining Transmissivity of Nonleaky Confined Aquifers by Overdamped Well Response to Instantaneous Change in Head (Slug Tests)
D4448 Guide for Sampling Ground-Water Monitoring Wells
D4750 Test Method for Determining Subsurface Liquid Levels in a Borehole or Monitoring Well (Observation Well)
D5088 Practice for Decontamination of Field Equipment Used at Waste Sites
D5092 Practice for Design and Installation of Groundwater Monitoring Wells
D5434 Guide for Field Logging of Subsurface Explorations of Soil and Rock
D5521 Guide for Development of Groundwater Monitoring Wells in Granular Aquifers
D5785 Test Method for (Analytical Procedure) for Determining Transmissivity of Confined Nonleaky Aquifers by Underdamped Well Response to Instantaneous Change in Head (Slug Test)
D5786 Practice for (Field Procedure) for Constant Drawdown Tests in Flowing Wells for Determining Hydraulic Properties of Aquifer Systems
D5787 Practice for Monitoring Well Protection
D5881 Test Method for (Analytical Procedure) Determining Transmissivity of Confined Nonleaky Aquifers by Critically Damped Well Response to Instantaneous Change in Head (Slug)
D5912 Test Method for (Analytical Procedure) Determining Hydraulic Conductivity of an Unconfined Aquifer by Overdamped Well Response to Instantaneous Change in Head (Slug)
D6001 Guide for Direct-Push Groundwater Sampling for Environmental Site Characterization
D6026 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
D6067 Practice for Using the Electronic Piezocone Penetrometer Tests for Environmental Site Characterization
D6151 Practice for Using Hollow-Stem Augers for Geotechnical Exploration and Soil Sampling
D6282 Guide for Direct Push Soil Sampling for Environmental Site Characterizations
D6285 Guide for Locating Abandoned Wells
D6286 Guide for Selection of Drilling Methods for Environmental Site Characterization
D6542 Practice for Tonnage Calculation of Coal in a Stockpile
D6634 Guide for Selection of Purging and Sampling Devices for Groundwater Monitoring Wells
D6724 Guide for Installation of Direct Push Groundwater Monitoring Wells
D6771 Practice for Low-Flow Purging and Sampling for Wells and Devices Used for Ground-Water Quality Investigations
D6914 Practice for Sonic Drilling for Site Characterization and the Installation of Subsurface Monitoring Devices
D7242 Practice for Field Pneumatic Slug (Instantaneous Change in Head) Tests to Determine Hydraulic Properties of Aquifers with Direct Push Groundwater Samplers
D7352 Practice for Direct Push Technology for Volatile Contaminant Logging with the Membrane Interface Probe (MIP)
D7929 Guide for Selection of Passive Techniques for Sampling Groundwater Monitoring Wells
ICS Number Code 13.060.10 (Water of natural resources)
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ASTM D6725 / D6725M-16, Standard Practice for Direct Push Installation of Prepacked Screen Monitoring Wells in Unconsolidated Aquifers, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2016, www.astm.orgBack to Top