ASTM D653 - 21

    Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids

    Active Standard ASTM D653 | Developed by Subcommittee: D18.93

    Book of Standards Volume: 04.08


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    Significance and Use

    3.1 Definitions in this standard are to be regarded as the correct ones for terms found in other ASTM standards of Committee D18. Certain terms may be found in more than one standard issued under the jurisdiction of this committee and many of these terms have been placed in this standard.

    3.2 Terms that are defined in some textbooks may differ slightly from those in this terminology standard. Definitions in this terminology standard are to be regarded as correct for ASTM usage.

    3.3 See Appendix X1 for References.

    3.4 Definitions marked with (ISRM) are included for the convenience of the user and were taken directly from the International Society for Rock Mechanics (see X1.3).

    3.5 A number of the definitions include symbols. The symbols appear in italics immediately after the name of the term.

    3.5.1 No significance should be placed on the order in which the symbols are presented where two or more are given for an individual term.

    3.5.2 The symbols presented are examples; therefore, other symbols are acceptable.

    3.5.3 See Appendix X2 for ISRM Symbols.

    3.6 A number of definitions indicate the units of measurements in brackets and which follow the symbol(s) if given. The applicable units are indicated by italic capital letters, as follows:
    D—Dimensionless
    F—Force, such as pound-force, ton-force, newton
    L—Length, such as inch, foot, millimeter, and meter4
    M—Mass, such as kilogram, gram
    T—Time, such as second, minute

    3.6.1 Positive exponents designate multiples in the numerator. Negative exponents designate multiples in the denominator. Degrees of angle are indicated as “degrees.”

    3.6.2 Expressing the units either in SI or the inch-pound system has been purposely omitted in order to leave the choice of the system and specific unit to the engineer and the particular application, for example:
     FL−2—may be expressed in pounds-force per square inch, kilopascals, tons per square foot, etc.
     LT−1—may be expressed in feet per minute, meters per second, etc.

    3.7 Where synonymous terms are cross-referenced, the definition is usually included with the earlier term alphabetically. Where this is not the case, the later term is the more significant.

    3.8 Grouping of Definitions and Listing of Related Terms—To aide users in finding terms, this terminology standard provides grouping of definitions and listing of related terms.

    3.8.1 Groupings—These groupings are presented in Table 1A.

    TABLE 1A Listing of Groupings*

    Aquifer

    Coefficients: Earth

    Consolidation

    D18.24

    Density

    Head

    Measurement

    Principal Plane

    Specific Gravity

    Stress

    Unit Weight

    Wave

    *Groupings can be editorially added or removed by the subcommittee chair as they are changed within D653.

    3.8.1.1 Sub-Term Groupings—These groupings are presented in Table 1B.

    TABLE 1B Listing of Sub-Term Groupings*

    ASTM cement types

    horizon or soil horizon

    moisture equivalent

    plastic equilibrium

    shear failure or failure by rupture

    site investigation

    soil structure

    *Groupings can be editorially added or removed by the subcommittee chair as they are changed within D653.

    3.8.2 Listings (see Appendix X3)—The listing of related terms is given in Table 1C. This listing may include all of the terms defined within standards under the jurisdiction of a specific technical subcommittee, such as D18.14, D18.24, D18.25, and D18.26.

    TABLE 1C Listing of Related Terms*

    compaction

    density

    effective

    specific gravity

    unit weight

    *Listings of related terms can be editorially added or removed by the subcommittee chair as they are changed within D653.

    1. Scope

    1.1 These definitions apply to many terms found in the Terminology section of standards of ASTM Committee D18.

    1.2 This terminology standard defines terms related to soil, rock, and contained fluids found in the various sections of standards under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D18.

    1.3 Definitions of terms relating to frozen soils are contained in Terminology D7099.

    1.4 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    C143/C143M Test Method for Slump of Hydraulic-Cement Concrete

    C150/C150M Specification for Portland Cement

    C802 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Test Program to Determine the Precision of Test Methods for Construction Materials

    D558/D558M Test Methods for Moisture-Density (Unit Weight) Relations of Soil-Cement Mixtures

    D698 Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort (12,400 ft-lbf/ft3 (600 kN-m/m3))

    D854 Test Methods for Specific Gravity of Soil Solids by Water Pycnometer

    D1557 Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2,700 kN-m/m3))

    D1586/D1586M Test Method for Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and Split-Barrel Sampling of Soils

    D1883 Test Method for California Bearing Ratio (CBR) of Laboratory-Compacted Soils

    D2166/D2166M Test Method for Unconfined Compressive Strength of Cohesive Soil

    D2419 Test Method for Sand Equivalent Value of Soils and Fine Aggregate

    D2435/D2435M Test Methods for One-Dimensional Consolidation Properties of Soils Using Incremental Loading

    D2487 Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)

    D2488 Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedures)

    D4043 Guide for Selection of Aquifer Test Method in Determining Hydraulic Properties by Well Techniques

    D4044/D4044M Test Method for (Field Procedure) for Instantaneous Change in Head (Slug) Tests for Determining Hydraulic Properties of Aquifers

    D4050 Test Method for (Field Procedure) for Withdrawal and Injection Well Testing for Determining Hydraulic Properties of Aquifer Systems

    D4104/D4104M Practice for (Analytical Procedures) Determining Transmissivity of Nonleaky Confined Aquifers by Overdamped Well Response to Instantaneous Change in Head (Slug Tests)

    D4105/D4105M Practice for (Analytical Procedure) for Determining Transmissivity and Storage Coefficient of Nonleaky Confined Aquifers by the Modified Theis Nonequilibrium Method

    D4106 Practice for (Analytical Procedure) for Determining Transmissivity and Storage Coefficient of Nonleaky Confined Aquifers by the Theis Nonequilibrium Method

    D4186/D4186M Test Method for One-Dimensional Consolidation Properties of Saturated Cohesive Soils Using Controlled-Strain Loading

    D4253 Test Methods for Maximum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils Using a Vibratory Table

    D4254 Test Methods for Minimum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils and Calculation of Relative Density

    D4318 Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils

    D4429 Test Method for CBR (California Bearing Ratio) of Soils in Place

    D4750 Test Method for Determining Subsurface Liquid Levels in a Borehole or Monitoring Well (Observation Well)

    D4943 Test Method for Shrinkage Factors of Cohesive Soils by the Water Submersion Method

    D5084 Test Methods for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Saturated Porous Materials Using a Flexible Wall Permeameter

    D5088 Practice for Decontamination of Field Equipment Used at Waste Sites

    D5092/D5092M Practice for Design and Installation of Groundwater Monitoring Wells

    D5269 Test Method for Determining Transmissivity of Nonleaky Confined Aquifers by the Theis Recovery Method

    D5270/D5270M Practice for (Analytical Procedures) Determining Transmissivity and Storage Coefficient of Bounded, Nonleaky, Confined Aquifers

    D5878 Guides for Using Rock-Mass Classification Systems for Engineering Purposes

    D6026 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data

    D6028/D6028M Practice for (Analytical Procedure) Determining Hydraulic Properties of a Confined Aquifer Taking into Consideration Storage of Water in Leaky Confining Beds by Modified Hantush Method

    D6029/D6029M Practice for (Analytical Procedures) Determining Hydraulic Properties of a Confined Aquifer and a Leaky Confining Bed with Negligible Storage by the Hantush-Jacob Method

    D6128 Test Method for Shear Testing of Bulk Solids Using the Jenike Shear Tester

    D6312 Guide for Developing Appropriate Statistical Approaches for Groundwater Detection Monitoring Programs at Waste Disposal Facilities

    D6429 Guide for Selecting Surface Geophysical Methods

    D6910/D6910M Test Method for Marsh Funnel Viscosity of Construction Slurries

    D6913/D6913M Test Methods for Particle-Size Distribution (Gradation) of Soils Using Sieve Analysis

    D6940/D6940M Practice for Measuring Sifting Segregation Tendencies of Bulk Solids

    D6941 Practice for Measuring Fluidization Segregation Tendencies of Powders

    D7099 Terminology Relating to Frozen Soil and Rock

    D7382 Test Methods for Determination of Maximum Dry Unit Weight of Granular Soils Using a Vibrating Hammer

    D7743 Test Method for Measuring the Minimum Fluidization Velocities of Free Flowing Powders

    D8081 Guide for Theory and Principles for Obtaining Reliable and Accurate Bulk Solids Flow Data Using a Direct Shear Cell

    D8198 Specification for Hydraulically Applied 100% Wood Fiber Mulches

    D8297/D8297M Test Method for Determination of Erosion Control Products (ECP) Performance in Protecting Slopes from Sequential Rainfall-Induced Erosion Using a Tilted Bed Slope

    D8298/D8298M Test Method for Determination of Erosion Control Products (ECP) Performance in Protecting Slopes from Continuous Rainfall-Induced Erosion Using a Tilted Bed Slope

    E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 01.040.13 (Environment and health protection. Safety (Vocabularies)); 13.080.01 (Soil quality in general)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 11111501(Soil)


    Referencing This Standard
    Link Here
    Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.)

    DOI: 10.1520/D0653-21

    Citation Format

    ASTM D653-21, Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2021, www.astm.org

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