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    ASTM D629 - 15

    Standard Test Methods for Quantitative Analysis of Textiles

    Active Standard ASTM D629 | Developed by Subcommittee: D13.51

    Book of Standards Volume: 07.01

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    Significance and Use

    5.1 Qualitative and quantitative fiber identification is actively pursued by committee RA24 (Fiber Identification) of AATCC and presented in AATCC Test Methods 20 and 20A. Since precision and bias development is also part of the AATCC test methods, both AATCC and ASTM D13 have agreed that new development will take place in RA24. However, because there is valuable information still present in the ASTM standards, D13.51 has agreed Test MethodsD276 and D629 will be maintained as active standards by ASTM.

    5.2 Test Methods D629 for the determination of quantitative analysis of textiles may be used for acceptance testing of commercial shipments but caution is advised since information on between-laboratory precision is lacking. Comparative tests as directed in 5.2.1 or in Standard Tables D1909 may be advisable.

    5.2.1 In case of a dispute arising from differences in reported test results using Test Methods D629 for acceptance testing of commercial shipments, the purchaser and the supplier should conduct comparative tests to determine if there is a statistical bias between their laboratories. Competent statistical assistance is recommended for the investigation of bias. As a minimum, the two parties should take a group of test specimens which are as homogeneous as possible and which are from a lot of material of the type in question. The test specimen should then be randomly assigned in equal numbers to each laboratory for testing. The average results from the two laboratories should be compared using Student's t-test and an acceptable probability level chosen by the two parties before the testing began. If a bias is found, either its cause must be found and corrected or the purchaser and supplier must agree to interpret future test results in the light of the known bias.

    5.3 The effects of the various reagents used in the chemical methods on the residual fibers in a blend depend upon the history of the fibers and, unless otherwise stated, are generally too small or too uncertain to warrant the application of correction factors.

    5.4 Fiber composition is generally expressed either on the oven-dry mass of the original sample or the oven-dry mass of the clean fiber after the removal of nonfibrous materials. If nonfibrous materials are not first removed from the textile before the fiber analysis is carried out, or if the treatments described in Section 8 are incapable of removing them, any such materials present will increase the percentage of the fiber constituent with which they are removed during the analysis, assuming they are soluble in the solvent used.

    5.5 The analytical methods are intended primarily for the separation of binary mixtures of fibers. These procedures may also be used for the analysis of mixtures containing more than two types of fibers by selecting the best combination of methods to use (Table 1). Since a sequence of solvents on a given fiber may produce different results than the expected results from a single solvent, it is advisable to determine the results of such sequential effects when testing multiple fiber blends. It is sometimes more convenient to separate mechanically the yarns in a textile which are of similar types, and then use the appropriate chemical method to analyze each of the components. Table 2 shows the solubilities of the various fibers in different chemical reagents.

    (A) Key to Methods and Reagents:

    Method No. 1—80 % acetone(cold)

    Method No. 2— N-Butyrolactone

    Method No. 3—90 % formic acid

    Method No. 4—59.5 % sulfuric acid

    Method No. 5—70 % sulfuric acid

    Method No. 6—Sodium hypochlorite solution

    Method No. 7—Curpammonia solution

    Method No. 8—Hot xylene

    Method No. 9—90 % formic acid

    Method No. 10—N,N-dimethylacetamide

    (B) Each analytical method is identified by a number and where possible, two methods of analysis are provided for each binary mixture of fibers. The number or numbers inside parentheses refers to the method that dissolves the fiber shown at the top of the diagram. The number or numbers outside the parentheses indicates the method that dissolves the fiber listed at the left side of the diagram. Where two methods are listed for a specific binary mixture, the non-superscript method number represents the method of choice.
    (A) Key to Symbols:

    S  =  Soluble

    PS  =  Partially Soluble

    SS  =  Slightly Soluble (a correction factor may be applied)

    I  =  Insoluble

    (B) Reworked wools are soluble in 70 % H2SO4 depending upon their previous history.

    1. Scope

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the determination of the fiber blend composition of mixtures of the fibers listed in 1.2. Procedures for quantitative estimation of the amount of moisture and certain nonfibrous materials in textiles are also described, for use in the analysis of mixtures, but these are not the primary methods for the determination of moisture content for commercial weights.

    1.2 These test methods cover procedures for the following fiber types:

    1.2.1 Natural Fibers: Cellulose-Base Fibers:




     Ramie Protein-Base Fibers:

     Animal hairs (other than wool)

     Silk, cultivated

     Silk, Tussah


    1.2.2 Man-Made Fibers: Cellulose-Base Fibers:

     Acetate (secondary)

     Rayon, viscose or cuprammonium

     Triacetate Synthetic-Base Fibers:




     Nylon 6, Nylon 6-6, others




    1.3 These test methods include the following sections and tables:




    Referenced Documents




    Summary of Methods


    Uses and Significance




    Purity of Reagents


    Moisture Content or Moisture Regain


    Nonfibrous Materials


    Mechanical Separation or Dissection


    Chemical Test Methods:


     Summary of Methods


     Specimens and Symbols


     No. 1 Acetate Mixed With Other Fibers


     No. 2 Modacrylic Mixed With Cellulosic Fiber or Wool


     No. 3 Nylon 6 or Nylon 6-6 Mixed With Natural Fibers or   Rayon


     No. 4 Rayon Mixed With Cotton


     No. 5 Wool or Polyester Mixed With Cellulosic Fibers or Silk


     No. 6 Polyester or Acrylic Mixed With Wool


     No. 7 Natural Cellulosic Material and Rayon Mixed With   Acrylic, Modacrylic, and Polyester


     No. 8 Polyester Mixed With Olefin


     No. 9 Polyester Mixed With Acetate or Nylon 6,6-6


     No. 10 Acrylic Fiber or Linear Spandex Mixed With Nylon or   Polyester


    Microscopical Analysis




     Summary of Method














    Chemical Methods for Analysis of Fiber Mixtures


    Solubilities of Various Fibers in Solvents Used in Chemical


    Fineness Ranges and Fiber Diameters of Various Textile Fibers


    Density and Moisture Regain of Common Fiber Types


    1.4 The analytical procedures described in the test methods are applicable to the fibers listed in 1.2. The test methods are not satisfactory for the separation of mixtures containing fibers that fall within the same generic class but differ somewhat, either physically or chemically, from each other. These test methods are not satisfactory for the determination of bicomponent fibers.

    Note 1: For other methods of analysis covering specific determinations, refer to: Test Methods D461, Test Method D584, Methods D885, Test Method D1113, Test Method D1334, and Test Method D2130. Methods for moisture are covered in Methods D885, Test Method D1576, Test Method D2462, Test Method D2495 and Test Methods D2654. For the determination of commercial weight, refer to Test Method D2494.

    1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D123 Terminology Relating to Textiles

    D276 Test Methods for Identification of Fibers in Textiles

    D461 Test Methods for Felt

    D584 Test Method for Wool Content of Raw Wool--Laboratory Scale

    D885 Test Methods for Tire Cords, Tire Cord Fabrics, and Industrial Filament Yarns Made from Manufactured Organic-Base Fibers

    D1113 Test Method for Vegetable Matter and Other Alkali-Insoluble Impurities in Scoured Wool

    D1193 Specification for Reagent Water

    D1334 Test Method for Wool Content of Raw Wool--Commercial Scale

    D1576 Test Method for Moisture in Wool by Oven-Drying

    D1909 Standard Tables of Commercial Moisture Regains and Commercial Allowances for Textile Fibers

    D2130 Test Method for Diameter of Wool and Other Animal Fibers by Microprojection

    D2462 Test Method for Moisture in Wool by Distillation With Toluene

    D2494 Test Method for Commercial Mass of a Shipment of Yarn or Manufactured Staple Fiber or Tow

    D2495 Test Method for Moisture in Cotton by Oven-Drying

    D2654 Test Method for Moisture in Textiles

    D4920 Terminology Relating to Conditioning, Chemical, and Thermal Properties

    AATCC Method

    20 A Test Method for Fiber Analysis: Quantitative AATCC Technical Manual, available from the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists, P.O. Box 12215, Triangle Park, NC 27709, www.aatcc.org.

    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 59.080.01 (Textiles in general)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 11151500(Fibers)

    Referencing This Standard
    Link Here
    Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.)

    DOI: 10.1520/D0629-15

    Citation Format

    ASTM D629-15, Standard Test Methods for Quantitative Analysis of Textiles, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2015, www.astm.org

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