ASTM D560 / D560M - 16

    Standard Test Methods for Freezing and Thawing Compacted Soil-Cement Mixtures

    Active Standard ASTM D560 / D560M | Developed by Subcommittee: D18.15

    Book of Standards Volume: 04.08

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    Significance and Use

    4.1 These test methods are used to determine the resistance of compacted soil-cement specimens to repeated freezing and thawing. These test methods were developed to be used in conjunction with Test Methods D559/D559M and criteria given in the Soil-Cement Laboratory Handbook4 to determine the minimum amount of cement required in soil-cement to achieve a degree of hardness adequate to resist field weathering.

    Note 1: The quality of the result produced by this standard is dependent on the competence of the personnel performing it and the suitability of the equipment and facilities used. Agencies that meet the criteria of Practice D3740 are generally considered capable of competent and objective testing/sampling/inspection/etc. Users of this standard are cautioned that compliance with Practice D3740 does not in itself ensure reliable results. Reliable results depend on many factors; Practice D3740 provides a means of evaluating some of those factors.

    1. Scope

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for determining the soil-cement losses, water content changes, and volume changes (swell and shrinkage) produced by repeated freezing and thawing of hardened soil-cement specimens. The specimens are compacted in a mold, before cement hydration, to maximum density at optimum water content using the compaction procedure described in Test Methods D558.

    1.2 Two test methods, depending on soil gradation, are covered for preparation of material for molding specimens and for molding specimens as follows:



    Test Method A, using soil material passing a 4.75-mm [No. 4] sieve.
     This method shall be used when 100 % of the soil sample passes
     the 4.75-mm [No. 4] sieve.


    Test Method B, using soil material passing a [0.75-in.] 19.0-mm sieve.
     This method shall be used when part of the soil sample is retained
     on the 4.75-mm [No. 4] sieve. This test method may be used only
     on those materials that have 30 % or less retained on the 19.0 mm
     [0.75-in.] sieve


    1.3 All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D6026, unless superseded by this test method.

    1.3.1 The procedures used to specify how data are collected /recorded and calculated in the standard are regarded as the industry standard. In addition, they are representative of the significant digits that generally should be retained. The procedures used do not consider material variation, purpose for obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any considerations for the user’s objectives; and it is common practice to increase or reduce significant digits of reported data to be commensurate with these considerations. It is beyond the scope of these test methods to consider significant digits used in analysis methods for engineering data.

    1.4 Units—The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units [presented in brackets] are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard. Sieve size is identified by its standard designation in Specification E11. The alternative designation given in parentheses is for information only and does not represent a different standard sieve size.

    1.4.1 The gravitational system of inch-pound units is used when dealing with inch-pound units. In this system, the pound (lbf) represents a unit of force (weight), while the unit for mass is slugs. The rationalized slug unit is not given, unless dynamic (F = ma) calculations are involved.

    1.4.2 It is common practice in the engineering/construction profession to use pounds to represent both a unit of mass (lbm) and of force (lbf). This implicitly combines two separate systems of unit; that is, the absolute system and the gravitational system. It is scientifically undesirable to combine the use of two separate sets of inch-pound units within a single standard. As stated, this standard includes the gravitational system of inch-pound units and does not use/present the slug unit for mass. However, the use of balances or scales recording pounds of mass (lbm) or recording density in lbm/ft3 shall not be regarded as nonconformance with this standard.

    1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    C150/C150M Specification for Portland Cement

    C595/C595M Specification for Blended Hydraulic Cements

    D558 Test Methods for Moisture-Density (Unit Weight) Relations of Soil-Cement Mixtures

    D559/D559M Test Methods for Wetting and Drying Compacted Soil-Cement Mixtures

    D653 Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids

    D698 Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort (12 400 ft-lbf/ft3 (600 kN-m/m3))

    D2168 Practices for Calibration of Laboratory Mechanical-Rammer Soil Compactors

    D2216 Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass

    D3282 Practice for Classification of Soils and Soil-Aggregate Mixtures for Highway Construction Purposes

    D3740 Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction

    D4753 Guide for Evaluating, Selecting, and Specifying Balances and Standard Masses for Use in Soil, Rock, and Construction Materials Testing

    D6026 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data

    E11 Specification for Woven Wire Test Sieve Cloth and Test Sieves

    E145 Specification for Gravity-Convection and Forced-Ventilation Ovens

    AASHTO Standards


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 93.020 (Earthworks. Excavations. Foundation construction. Underground works)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 11111501(Soil); 30111601(Cement)

    Referencing This Standard
    Link Here
    Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.)

    DOI: 10.1520/D0560_D0560M-16

    Citation Format

    ASTM D560 / D560M-16, Standard Test Methods for Freezing and Thawing Compacted Soil-Cement Mixtures , ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2016,

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