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Significance and Use
5.1 Assumptions of the Theis (equation affect specific capacity and transmissivity estimated from specific capacity. These assumptions are given below: )
5.1.1 Aquifer is homogeneous and isotropic.
5.1.2 Aquifer is horizontal, of uniform thickness, and infinite in areal extent.
5.1.3 Aquifer is confined by impermeable strata on its upper and lower boundaries.
5.1.4 Density gradient in the flowing fluid must be negligible and the viscous resistance to flow must obey Darcy's Law.
5.1.5 Control well penetrates and receives water equally from the entire thickness of the aquifer.
5.1.6 Control well has an infinitesimal diameter.
5.1.7 Control well discharges at a constant rate.
5.1.8 Control well operates at 100 percent efficiency.
5.1.9 Aquifer remains saturated throughout the duration of pumping.
5.2 Implications of Assumptions and Limitations of Method.
5.2.1 The simplifying assumptions necessary for solution of the Theis equation and application of the method are never fully met in a field situation. The satisfactory use of the method may depend upon the application of one or more empirical correction factors being applied to the field data.
5.2.2 Generally the values of transmissivity derived from specific capacity vary from those values determined from aquifer tests utilizing observation wells. These differences may reflect 1) that specific-capacity represents the response of a small part of the aquifer near the well and may be greatly influenced by conditions near the well such as a gravel pack or graded material resulting from well development, and 2) effects of well efficiency and partial penetration.
5.2.3 The values of transmissivity estimated from specific capacity data are considered less accurate than values obtained from analysis of drawdowns that are observed some distance from the pumped well.
Note 1: The quality of the result produced by this practice is dependent on the competence of the personnel performing it, and the suitability of the equipment and facilities used. Agencies that meet the criteria of Practice are generally considered capable of competent and objective testing/sampling/inspection/etc. Users of this practice are cautioned that compliance with Practice does not in itself assure reliable results. Reliable results depend on many factors; Practice provides a means of evaluating some of those factors.
5.3 Withdrawal well test field procedures are used with appropriate analytical procedures in appropriate hydrogeological sites to determine transmissivity and storage coefficient of aquifers and hydraulic conductivity of confining beds.
1.1 This practice describes a procedure for conducting a specific capacity test, computing the specific capacity of a control well, and estimating the transmissivity in the vicinity of the control well. Specific capacity is the well yield per unit drawdown at an identified time after pumping started.
1.2 This practice is used in conjunction with Test Method for conducting withdrawal and injection well tests.
1.3 The method of determining transmissivity from specific capacity is a variation of the nonequilibrium method of Theis () for determining transmissivity and storage coefficient of an aquifer. The Theis nonequilibrium method is given in Practice .
1.4 Limitations—The limitations of the technique for determining transmissivity are primarily related to the correspondence between the field situation and the simplifying assumptions of the Theis method.
1.5 The scope of this practice is limited by the capabilities of the apparatus.
1.6 All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Practice .
1.6.1 The procedures used to specify how data are collected/recorded and calculated in this practice are regarded as the industry standard. In addition, they are representative of the significant digits that should generally be retained. The procedures used do not consider material variation, purpose for obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any considerations for the user’s objectives; and it is common practice to increase or reduce significant digits of reported data to commensurate with these considerations. It is beyond the scope of this practice to consider significant digits used in analysis methods for engineering design.
1.7 Units—The values stated in SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values for the two systems may result in nonconformance with the standard. Reporting of results in units other than SI shall not be regarded as noncompliance with this standard.
1.8 This practice offers a set of instructions for performing one or more specific operations. This document cannot replace education or experience and should be used in conjunction with professional judgment. Not all aspects of the practice may be applicable in all circumstances. This ASTM standard is not intended to represent or replace the standard of care by which the adequacy of a given professional service must be judged, nor should this document be applied without the consideration of a project’s many unique aspects. The word “Standard” in the title of this document means only that the document has been approved through the ASTM consensus process.
1.9 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.10 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D653 Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
D2488 Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedures)
D3740 Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
D4050 Test Method for (Field Procedure) for Withdrawal and Injection Well Testing for Determining Hydraulic Properties of Aquifer Systems
D4106 Practice for (Analytical Procedure) for Determining Transmissivity and Storage Coefficient of Nonleaky Confined Aquifers by the Theis Nonequilibrium Method
D6026 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
ICS Number Code 13.060.10 (Water of natural resources)
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ASTM D5472 / D5472M-20, Standard Practice for Determining Specific Capacity and Estimating Transmissivity at the Control Well, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2020, www.astm.orgBack to Top