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    ASTM D5420 - 21

    Standard Test Method for Impact Resistance of Flat, Rigid Plastic Specimen by Means of a Striker Impacted by a Falling Weight (Gardner Impact)

    Active Standard ASTM D5420 | Developed by Subcommittee: D20.10

    Book of Standards Volume: 08.03

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    Significance and Use

    5.1 Plastics are viscoelastic and it is possible that they are sensitive to changes in velocity of weights falling on their surfaces. However, the velocity of a free-falling object is a function of the square root of the drop height. A change of a factor of two in the drop height will cause a change of only 1.4 in velocity. Hagan, et al (2) found that the mean-failure energy of sheeting was constant at drop heights between 0.30 and 1.4 m. Different materials respond differently to changes in the velocity of impact.

    5.2 The test conditions used in Geometry GA are the same as those used in Geometry FA of Test Method D5628 (see Table 1).

    5.3 The test conditions of Geometry GB are equivalent to the geometry used for the Gardner Variable Height Impact Test (3).

    5.4 The test conditions of Geometry GC cause a punch-shear type of failure because the support-plate hole is close to the diameter of the striker.

    5.5 The test conditions of Geometry GD are the same as those in Test Method D3763.

    5.6 The test conditions of Geometry GE are the same as those in Test Method D4226, impactor head configuration H.25.

    5.7 Because of the nature of impact testing, the selection of a test method and striker must be somewhat arbitrary. Consider the end use environment and requirements when choosing from the available striker geometries. The selection of any one of the striker geometries is permitted.

    Note 2: Material processing can have a significant affect on the development of a plastic's physical properties. Consult relevant material standards for processing guidelines

    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the relative ranking of materials according to the energy required to crack or break flat, rigid plastic specimens under various specified conditions of impact of a striker impacted by a falling weight.

    1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.

    1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    Note 1: There is no known ISO equivalent to this standard.

    1.4 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D618 Practice for Conditioning Plastics for Testing

    D883 Terminology Relating to Plastics

    D1600 Terminology for Abbreviated Terms Relating to Plastics

    D2794 Test Method for Resistance of Organic Coatings to the Effects of Rapid Deformation (Impact)

    D3763 Test Method for High Speed Puncture Properties of Plastics Using Load and Displacement Sensors

    D4066 Classification System for Nylon Injection and Extrusion Materials (PA)

    D4226 Test Methods for Impact Resistance of Rigid Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Building Products

    D5628 Test Method for Impact Resistance of Flat, Rigid Plastic Specimens by Means of a Falling Dart (Tup or Falling Mass)

    D5947 Test Methods for Physical Dimensions of Solid Plastics Specimens

    E171 Practice for Conditioning and Testing Flexible Barrier Packaging

    E456 Terminology Relating to Quality and Statistics

    E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method

    E2935 Practice for Conducting Equivalence Tests for Comparing Testing Processes

    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 83.140.10 (Films and sheets)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 13100000(Rubber and elastomers)

    Referencing This Standard
    Link Here
    Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.)

    DOI: 10.1520/D5420-21

    Citation Format

    ASTM D5420-21, Standard Test Method for Impact Resistance of Flat, Rigid Plastic Specimen by Means of a Striker Impacted by a Falling Weight (Gardner Impact), ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2021, www.astm.org

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