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Significance and Use
5.1.1 The well discharges at a constant rate.
5.1.2 Well is of infinitesimal diameter and is open through the full thickness of the aquifer.
5.1.3 The nonleaky confined aquifer is homogeneous, isotropic, and areally extensive except where limited by linear boundaries.
5.1.4 Discharge from the well is derived initially from storage in the aquifer; later, movement of water may be induced from a constant-head boundary into the aquifer.
5.1.5 The geometry of the assumed aquifer and well are shown in or .
5.1.6 Boundaries are vertical planes, infinite in length that fully penetrate the aquifer. No water is yielded to the aquifer by impermeable boundaries, whereas recharging boundaries are in perfect hydraulic connection with the aquifer.
5.1.7 Observation wells represent the head in the aquifer; that is, the effects of wellbore storage in the observation wells are negligible.
5.2 Implications of Assumptions:
5.2.1 Implicit in the assumptions are the conditions of a fully-penetrating control well and observation wells of infinitesimal diameter in a confined aquifer. Under certain conditions, aquifer tests can be successfully analyzed when the control well is open to only part of the aquifer or contains a significant volume of water or when the test is conducted in an unconfined aquifer. These conditions are discussed in more detail in Practice .
5.2.2 In cases in which this practice is used to locate an unknown boundary, a minimum of three observation wells is needed. If only two observation wells are available, two possible locations of the boundary are defined, and if only one observation well is used, a circle describing all possible locations of the image well is defined.
5.2.3 The effects of a constant-head boundary are often indistinguishable from the effects of a leaky, confined aquifer. Therefore, care must be taken to ensure that a correct conceptual model of the system has been created prior to analyzing the test. See Guide .
Note 2: Slug and pumping tests implicitly assume a porous medium. Fractured rock and carbonate settings may not provide meaningful data and information.
5.3 Practice provides evaluation factors for the activities in this standard.
Note 3: The quality of the result produced by this standard is dependent on the competence of the personnel performing it, and the suitability of the equipment and facilities used. Agencies that meet the criteria of Practice are generally considered capable of competent and objective testing/sampling/inspection/etc. Users of this standard are cautioned that compliance with Practice does not in itself assure reliable results. Reliable results depend on many factors; Practice provides a means of evaluating some of those factors.
1.1 This practice covers an analytical procedure for determining the transmissivity, storage coefficient, and possible location of boundaries for a confined aquifer with a linear boundary. This practice is used to analyze water-level or head data from one or more observation wells or piezometers during the pumping of water from a control well at a constant rate. This practice also applies to flowing artesian wells discharging at a constant rate. With appropriate changes in sign, this practice also can be used to analyze the effects of injecting water into a control well at a constant rate.
1.2 The analytical procedure in this practice is used in conjunction with the field procedure in Test Method .
1.3 Limitations—The valid use of this practice is limited to determination of transmissivities and storage coefficients for aquifers in hydrogeologic settings with reasonable correspondence to the assumptions of the Theis nonequilibrium method (see Practice ) (see ), except that the aquifer is limited in areal extent by a linear boundary that fully penetrates the aquifer. The boundary is assumed to be either a constant-head boundary (equivalent to a stream or lake that hydraulically fully penetrates the aquifer) or a no-flow (impermeable) boundary (equivalent to a contact with a significantly less permeable rock unit). The Theis nonequilibrium method is described in Practices and .
1.4 Units—The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in nonconformance with the standard. Reporting of results in units other than SI shall not be regarded as nonconformance with this standard.
1.5 All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Practice .
1.6 This practice offers a set of instructions for performing one or more specific operations. This document cannot replace education or experience and should be used in conjunction with professional judgment. Not all aspects of the practice may be applicable in all circumstances. This ASTM standard is not intended to represent or replace the standard of care by which the adequacy of a given professional service must be judged, nor should this document be applied without the consideration of a project’s many unique aspects. The word “Standard” in the title of this document means only that the document has been approved through the ASTM consensus process.
1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.8 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D653 Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
D3740 Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
D4043 Guide for Selection of Aquifer Test Method in Determining Hydraulic Properties by Well Techniques
D4050 Test Method for (Field Procedure) for Withdrawal and Injection Well Testing for Determining Hydraulic Properties of Aquifer Systems
D4105/D4105M Practice for (Analytical Procedure) for Determining Transmissivity and Storage Coefficient of Nonleaky Confined Aquifers by the Modified Theis Nonequilibrium Method
D4106 Practice for (Analytical Procedure) for Determining Transmissivity and Storage Coefficient of Nonleaky Confined Aquifers by the Theis Nonequilibrium Method
D6026 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
ICS Number Code 13.060.10 (Water of natural resources)
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ASTM D5270 / D5270M-20, Standard Practice for (Analytical Procedures) Determining Transmissivity and Storage Coefficient of Bounded, Nonleaky, Confined Aquifers, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2020, www.astm.orgBack to Top