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Significance and Use
4.1 The high-voltage, low-current type of arc resistance test is intended to simulate only approximately such service conditions as exist in alternating current circuits operating at high voltage, but at currents limited to units and tens of milliamperes.
4.2 In order to distinguish more easily among materials that have low arc resistance, the early stages of this test method are mild, and the later stages are successively more severe. The arc occurs intermittently between two electrodes resting on the surface of the specimen, in normal or inverted orientation. The severity is increased in the early stages by successively decreasing to zero the interval between flashes of uniform duration, and in later stages by increasing the current.
4.3 Four general types of failure have been observed:
4.3.1 Many inorganic dielectrics become incandescent, whereupon they are capable of conducting the current. Upon cooling, however, they return to their earlier insulating condition.
4.3.2 Some organic compounds burst into flame without the formation of a visible conducting path in the substance.
4.3.3 Others are seen to fail by “tracking,” that is, a thin wiry line is formed between the electrodes.
4.3.4 The fourth type occurs by carbonization of the surface until sufficient carbon is present to carry the current.
4.4 Materials often fail within the first few seconds after a change in the severity stage. When comparing the arc resistance of materials, much more weight shall be given to a few seconds that overlap two stages than to the same elapsed time within a stage. Thus, there is a much greater difference in arc resistance between 178 and 182 s than between 174 and 178 s.
1.1 This test method covers, in a preliminary fashion, the differentiation of similar materials’ resistance to the action of a high-voltage, low-current arc close to the surface of insulation, when a conducting path is formed causing the material to become conducting due to the localized thermal and chemical decomposition and erosion.
1.2 The usefulness of this test method is very severely limited by many restrictions and qualifications, some of which are described in the following paragraphs and in Section 5. Generally, this test method shall not be used in material specifications. Whenever possible, alternative test methods shall be used, and their development is encouraged.
1.3 This test method will not, in general, permit conclusions to be drawn concerning the relative arc resistance rankings of materials that are potentially subjected to other types of arcs: for example, high voltage at high currents, and low voltage at low or high currents (promoted by surges or by conducting contaminants).
1.4 The test method is intended, because of its convenience and the short time required for testing, for preliminary screening of material, for detecting the effects of changes in formulation, and for quality control testing after correlation has been established with other types of simulated service arc tests and field experience. Because this test method is usually conducted under clean and dry laboratory conditions rarely encountered in practice, it is possible that the prediction of a material's relative performance in typical applications and in varying “clean to dirty” environments will be substantially altered (Note 1). Caution is urged against drawing strong conclusions without corroborating support of simulated service tests and field testing. Rather, this test method is useful for preliminary evaluation of changes in structure and composition without the complicating influence of environmental conditions, especially dirt and moisture.
1.5 While this test method uses dry, uncontaminated specimen surfaces, Test Method D2132, Test Methods D2303, and Test Method D3638 employ wet, contaminated specimen surfaces. Their use is recommended for engineering purposes and to assist in establishing some degree of significance to this test method for quality control purposes.2
1.6 This test method is not applicable to materials that do not produce conductive paths under the action of an electric arc, or that melt or form fluid residues that float conductive residues out of the active test area thereby preventing formation of a conductive path.
1.7 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
1.8 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific precautionary statements, see 6.1.14, 6.1.19, Section 7, and 10.1.1.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D1711 Terminology Relating to Electrical Insulation
D2132 Test Method for Dust-and-Fog Tracking and Erosion Resistance of Electrical Insulating Materials
D2303 Test Methods for Liquid-Contaminant, Inclined-Plane Tracking and Erosion of Insulating Materials
D3638 Test Method for Comparative Tracking Index of Electrical Insulating Materials
D6054 Practice for Conditioning Electrical Insulating Materials for Testing
ICS Number Code 29.035.01 (Insulating materials in general)
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ASTM D495-14, Standard Test Method for High-Voltage, Low-Current, Dry Arc Resistance of Solid Electrical Insulation, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2014, www.astm.orgBack to Top