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Significance and Use
4.1 This test method is intended for use in cases where an experimental determination of heat of combustion is not available and cannot be made conveniently, and where an estimate is considered satisfactory. It is not intended as a substitute for experimental measurement of heat of combustion.
1.1 This test method covers the estimation of the gross and net heat of combustion in SI units, megajoules per kilogram, of hydrocarbon fuels and blendstocks from the fuel density and sulfur, water, and ash contents.
1.1.1 This test method is not applicable to fuels containing non-hydrocarbons such as alcohols (for example, ethanol, methanol), ethers (for example, MTBE), or esters (for example, biodiesel).
Note 1: The equation for estimation of net and gross heat of combustion used in this method was originally published as NBS Miscellaneous Publication No. 97.
1.2 This test method is especially useful for estimating, using a minimum number of tests, the heat of combustion of burner and diesel fuels (which do not contain non-hydrocarbon components) for which it is not usually critical to obtain very precise heat determinations.
Note 2: More accurate estimation methods are available for aviation fuels (Test Methods , ,and ). However, those estimation methods require additional tests to those required in this test method.
1.3 This test method is purely empirical ( ). It was derived using liquid hydrocarbon fuels produced by normal refining processes from conventional crude oil that conform to the requirements of specifications for petroleum fuels as described in . This test method is valid for those fuels in the density range from 750 kg/m3 to 1000 kg/m3 and those that do not contain an unusually high aromatic content. High aromatic content fuels will not normally meet some fuel specification criteria.
Note 3: The estimation of the heat of combustion of a hydrocarbon fuel from its density and sulfur, water, and ash content is justifiable only when the fuel belongs to well-defined classes for which a relationship between these quantities have been derived from accurate experimental measurements on representative samples of these classes. Even in these classes, the possibility that the estimate can be in error for individual fuels should be recognized. This test method has been tested for a limited number of fuels from oil sand bitumen and shale oil origin and has been found to be valid. The classes of fuels used to establish the correlation presented in this test method are represented by the following applications: Fuel (not applicable to any fuels containing non-hydrocarbon components) Specification Fuel Oils Grades No. 1, 2, 4 (light), 4, 5 (light), 5 (heavy), and 6 Diesel Grades No. 1-D, 2-D, and 4-D Aviation Turbine Jet A and Jet A-1 Jet B Gas Turbine Grades No. 0-GT, 1-GT, 2-GT, 3-GT, and 4-GT Kerosene Grades No. 1-K and 2-K
Fuel (not applicable to any fuels containing non-hydrocarbon components)
Grades No. 1, 2, 4 (light), 4, 5 (light), 5 (heavy), and 6
Grades No. 1-D, 2-D, and 4-D
Jet A and Jet A-1
Grades No. 0-GT, 1-GT, 2-GT, 3-GT, and 4-GT
Grades No. 1-K and 2-K
1.4 This test method is not applicable to pure hydrocarbon compounds. It is not intended as a substitute for highly accurate experimental measurements of heat of combustion ( ).
Note 4: The procedures for the experimental determination of the gross and net heats of combustion are described in Test Methods and .
1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D95 Test Method for Water in Petroleum Products and Bituminous Materials by Distillation
D129 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (General High Pressure Decomposition Device Method)
D240 Test Method for Heat of Combustion of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels by Bomb Calorimeter
D396 Specification for Fuel Oils
D482 Test Method for Ash from Petroleum Products
D975 Specification for Diesel Fuel Oils
D1266 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (Lamp Method)
D1298 Test Method for Density, Relative Density, or API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Liquid Petroleum Products by Hydrometer Method
D1405 Test Method for Estimation of Net Heat of Combustion of Aviation Fuels
D1480 Test Method for Density and Relative Density (Specific Gravity) of Viscous Materials by Bingham Pycnometer
D1481 Test Method for Density and Relative Density (Specific Gravity) of Viscous Materials by Lipkin Bicapillary Pycnometer
D1552 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products by High Temperature Combustion and Infrared (IR) Detection or Thermal Conductivity Detection (TCD)
D1655 Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels
D1744 Test Method for Determination of Water in Liquid Petroleum Products by Karl Fischer Reagent
D1796 Test Method for Water and Sediment in Fuel Oils by the Centrifuge Method (Laboratory Procedure)
D2622 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
D2880 Specification for Gas Turbine Fuel Oils
D3338 Test Method for Estimation of Net Heat of Combustion of Aviation Fuels
D3699 Specification for Kerosine
D4052 Test Method for Density, Relative Density, and API Gravity of Liquids by Digital Density Meter
D4294 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum and Petroleum Products by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
D4529 Test Method for Estimation of Net Heat of Combustion of Aviation Fuels
D4809 Test Method for Heat of Combustion of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels by Bomb Calorimeter (Precision Method)
D5453 Test Method for Determination of Total Sulfur in Light Hydrocarbons, Spark Ignition Engine Fuel, Diesel Engine Fuel, and Engine Oil by Ultraviolet Fluorescence
D6304 Test Method for Determination of Water in Petroleum Products, Lubricating Oils, and Additives by Coulometric Karl Fischer Titration
D6615 Specification for Jet B Wide-Cut Aviation Turbine Fuel
D7039 Test Method for Sulfur in Gasoline, Diesel Fuel, Jet Fuel, Kerosine, Biodiesel, Biodiesel Blends, and Gasoline-Ethanol Blends by Monochromatic Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
NIST PublicationNBS Miscellaneous Publication No. 97 Thermal Properties of Petroleum Products Available by download from National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), https://library.nist.gov/uhtbin/cgisirsi/x/SIRSI/0/57/60/61/X?user_id=WEBSERVER
ICS Number Code 75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)
UNSPSC Code 15101505(Diesel fuel)
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ASTM D4868-17, Standard Test Method for Estimation of Net and Gross Heat of Combustion of Hydrocarbon Burner and Diesel Fuels, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2017, www.astm.orgBack to Top