ASTM D4868 - 17

    Standard Test Method for Estimation of Net and Gross Heat of Combustion of Hydrocarbon Burner and Diesel Fuels

    Active Standard ASTM D4868 | Developed by Subcommittee: D02.05

    Book of Standards Volume: 05.02


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    Significance and Use

    4.1 This test method is intended for use in cases where an experimental determination of heat of combustion is not available and cannot be made conveniently, and where an estimate is considered satisfactory. It is not intended as a substitute for experimental measurement of heat of combustion.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method covers the estimation of the gross and net heat of combustion in SI units, megajoules per kilogram, of hydrocarbon fuels and blendstocks from the fuel density and sulfur, water, and ash contents.

    1.1.1 This test method is not applicable to fuels containing non-hydrocarbons such as alcohols (for example, ethanol, methanol), ethers (for example, MTBE), or esters (for example, biodiesel).

    Note 1: The equation for estimation of net and gross heat of combustion used in this method was originally published as NBS Miscellaneous Publication No. 97.

    1.2 This test method is especially useful for estimating, using a minimum number of tests, the heat of combustion of burner and diesel fuels (which do not contain non-hydrocarbon components) for which it is not usually critical to obtain very precise heat determinations.

    Note 2: More accurate estimation methods are available for aviation fuels (Test Methods D1405, D4529,and D3338). However, those estimation methods require additional tests to those required in this test method.

    1.3 This test method is purely empirical (Note 1). It was derived using liquid hydrocarbon fuels produced by normal refining processes from conventional crude oil that conform to the requirements of specifications for petroleum fuels as described in Note 3. This test method is valid for those fuels in the density range from 750 kg/m3 to 1000 kg/m3 and those that do not contain an unusually high aromatic content. High aromatic content fuels will not normally meet some fuel specification criteria.

    Note 3: The estimation of the heat of combustion of a hydrocarbon fuel from its density and sulfur, water, and ash content is justifiable only when the fuel belongs to well-defined classes for which a relationship between these quantities have been derived from accurate experimental measurements on representative samples of these classes. Even in these classes, the possibility that the estimate can be in error for individual fuels should be recognized. This test method has been tested for a limited number of fuels from oil sand bitumen and shale oil origin and has been found to be valid. The classes of fuels used to establish the correlation presented in this test method are represented by the following applications:

    Fuel (not applicable to any fuels containing non-hydrocarbon components)

    Specification

    Fuel Oils

     

    Grades No. 1, 2, 4 (light), 4, 5 (light), 5 (heavy), and 6

    D396

    Diesel

     

    Grades No. 1-D, 2-D, and 4-D

    D975

    Aviation Turbine

     

    Jet A and Jet A-1

    D1655

    Jet B

    D6615

    Gas Turbine

     

    Grades No. 0-GT, 1-GT, 2-GT, 3-GT, and 4-GT

    D2880

    Kerosene

     

    Grades No. 1-K and 2-K

    D3699

    1.4 This test method is not applicable to pure hydrocarbon compounds. It is not intended as a substitute for highly accurate experimental measurements of heat of combustion (Note 4).

    Note 4: The procedures for the experimental determination of the gross and net heats of combustion are described in Test Methods D240 and D4809.

    1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

    1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D95 Test Method for Water in Petroleum Products and Bituminous Materials by Distillation

    D129 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (General High Pressure Decomposition Device Method)

    D240 Test Method for Heat of Combustion of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels by Bomb Calorimeter

    D396 Specification for Fuel Oils

    D482 Test Method for Ash from Petroleum Products

    D975 Specification for Diesel Fuel Oils

    D1266 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (Lamp Method)

    D1298 Test Method for Density, Relative Density (Specific Gravity), or API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Liquid Petroleum Products by Hydrometer Method

    D1405 Test Method for Estimation of Net Heat of Combustion of Aviation Fuels

    D1480 Test Method for Density and Relative Density (Specific Gravity) of Viscous Materials by Bingham Pycnometer

    D1481 Test Method for Density and Relative Density (Specific Gravity) of Viscous Materials by Lipkin Bicapillary Pycnometer

    D1552 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (High-Temperature Method)

    D1655 Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels

    D1744 Test Method for Determination of Water in Liquid Petroleum Products by Karl Fischer Reagent

    D1796 Test Method for Water and Sediment in Fuel Oils by the Centrifuge Method (Laboratory Procedure)

    D2622 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry

    D2880 Specification for Gas Turbine Fuel Oils

    D3338 Test Method for Estimation of Net Heat of Combustion of Aviation Fuels

    D3699 Specification for Kerosine

    D4052 Test Method for Density, Relative Density, and API Gravity of Liquids by Digital Density Meter

    D4294 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum and Petroleum Products by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry

    D4529 Test Method for Estimation of Net Heat of Combustion of Aviation Fuels

    D4809 Test Method for Heat of Combustion of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels by Bomb Calorimeter (Precision Method)

    D5453 Test Method for Determination of Total Sulfur in Light Hydrocarbons, Spark Ignition Engine Fuel, Diesel Engine Fuel, and Engine Oil by Ultraviolet Fluorescence


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 15101505(Diesel fuel)


    Referencing This Standard
    Link Here
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    DOI: 10.1520/D4868-17

    Citation Format

    ASTM D4868-17, Standard Test Method for Estimation of Net and Gross Heat of Combustion of Hydrocarbon Burner and Diesel Fuels, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2017, www.astm.org

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