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This specification describes the various characteristics and requirements of automotive fuels for use over a wide range of operating conditions in ground vehicles equipped with spark-ignition engines. It provides for a variation of the volatility and water tolerance of automotive fuel in accordance with seasonal climatic changes at the locality where the fuel is used. This specification neither necessarily includes all types of fuels that are satisfactory for automotive vehicles, nor necessarily excludes fuels that can perform unsatisfactorily under certain operating conditions or in certain equipment. The spark-ignition engine fuels covered here are gasoline and its blends with oxygenates, such as alcohols and ethers, and not fuels that contain an oxygenate as the primary component, such as fuel methanol (M85). This specification does not address the emission characteristics of reformulated spark-ignition engine fuel. However, in addition to the legal requirements, reformulated spark-ignition engine fuel should meet the performance requirements as well.
This abstract is a brief summary of the referenced standard. It is informational only and not an official part of the standard; the full text of the standard itself must be referred to for its use and application. ASTM does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents of this abstract are accurate, complete or up to date.
1.1 This specification covers the establishment of requirements of liquid automotive fuels for ground vehicles equipped with spark-ignition engines.
1.2 This specification describes various characteristics of automotive fuels for use over a wide range of operating conditions. It provides for a variation of the volatility and water tolerance of automotive fuel in accordance with seasonal climatic changes at the locality where the fuel is used. For the period May 1 through Sept. 15, the maximum vapor pressure limits issued by the United States (U.S.) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are specified for each geographical area except Alaska and Hawaii. Variation of the antiknock index with seasonal climatic changes and altitude is discussed in . This specification neither necessarily includes all types of fuels that are satisfactory for automotive vehicles, nor necessarily excludes fuels that can perform unsatisfactorily under certain operating conditions or in certain equipment. The significance of each of the properties of this specification is shown in .
1.3 The spark-ignition engine fuels covered in this specification are gasoline and its blends with oxygenates, such as alcohols and ethers and where gasoline is the primary component by volume in the blend. The concentrations and types of oxygenates are not specifically limited in this specification. The composition of both unleaded and leaded fuel is limited by economic, legal, and technical consideration, but their properties, including volatility, are defined by this specification. In many countries, regulatory authorities having jurisdiction have set laws and regulations that limit the concentration of oxygenates and certain other compounds found in spark-ignition engine fuel. In the United States, oxygenate types and concentrations are limited to those approved under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) substantially similar rule (see ), waivers, and partial waivers including some restrictions on vehicle and equipment use (see ). With regard to fuel properties, including volatility, this specification can be more or less restrictive than the EPA rules, regulations, and waivers. Refer to for discussions of EPA rules relating to fuel volatility, lead and phosphorous contents, sulfur content, benzene content, deposit control additive certification, and use of oxygenates in blends with unleaded gasoline. Contact the EPA for the latest versions of the rules and additional requirements.
1.4 This specification does not address the emission characteristics of reformulated spark-ignition engine fuel. Reformulated spark-ignition engine fuel is required in some areas to lower emissions from automotive vehicles, and its characteristics are described in the research report on reformulated spark-ignition engine fuel. However, in addition to the legal requirements found in this research report, reformulated spark-ignition engine fuel should meet the performance requirements found in this specification.
1.5 This specification represents a description of automotive fuel as of the date of publication. The specification is under continuous review, which can result in revisions based on changes in fuel, automotive requirements, or test methods, or a combination thereof. All users of this specification, therefore, should refer to the latest edition.
Note 1: If there is any doubt as to the latest edition of Specification , contact ASTM International Headquarters.
1.6 Tests applicable to gasoline are not necessarily applicable to its blends with oxygenates. Consequently, the type of fuel under consideration must first be identified in order to select applicable tests. Test Method provides a procedure for determining oxygenate concentration in mass percent. Test Method also includes procedures for calculating mass oxygen content and oxygenate concentration in volume percent. provides a procedure for calculating the mass oxygen content of a fuel using measured oxygenate type, oxygenate concentration in volume percent, and measured density or relative density of the fuel.
1.7 The following applies to all specified limits in this standard: For purposes of determining conformance with these specifications, an observed value or a calculated value shall be rounded “to the nearest unit” in the right-most significant digit used in expressing the specification limit, in accordance with the rounding method of Practice . For a specification limit expressed as an integer, a trailing zero is significant only if the decimal point is specified. For a specified limit expressed as an integer, and the right-most digit is non-zero, the right-most digit is significant without a decimal point being specified. This convention applies to specified limits in Tables 1, 3, and X8.1, and it will not be observed in the remainder of this specification.
1.8 The values stated in SI units are the standard, except when other units are specified by U.S. federal regulation. Values given in parentheses are provided for information only.
Note 2: Many of the values shown in
1.9 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.10 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D86 Test Method for Distillation of Petroleum Products and Liquid Fuels at Atmospheric Pressure
D130 Test Method for Corrosiveness to Copper from Petroleum Products by Copper Strip Test
D287 Test Method for API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Petroleum Products (Hydrometer Method)
D381 Test Method for Gum Content in Fuels by Jet Evaporation
D439 Specification for Automotive Gasoline
D525 Test Method for Oxidation Stability of Gasoline (Induction Period Method)
D1266 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (Lamp Method)
D1298 Test Method for Density, Relative Density, or API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Liquid Petroleum Products by Hydrometer Method
D2622 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
D2699 Test Method for Research Octane Number of Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel
D2700 Test Method for Motor Octane Number of Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel
D2885 Test Method for Determination of Octane Number of Spark-Ignition Engine Fuels by On-Line Direct Comparison Technique
D3120 Test Method for Trace Quantities of Sulfur in Light Liquid Petroleum Hydrocarbons by Oxidative Microcoulometry
D3231 Test Method for Phosphorus in Gasoline
D3237 Test Method for Lead in Gasoline by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
D3341 Test Method for Lead in GasolineIodine Monochloride Method
D3831 Test Method for Manganese in Gasoline By Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
D4052 Test Method for Density, Relative Density, and API Gravity of Liquids by Digital Density Meter
D4057 Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D4175 Terminology Relating to Petroleum Products, Liquid Fuels, and Lubricants
D4176 Test Method for Free Water and Particulate Contamination in Distillate Fuels (Visual Inspection Procedures)
D4177 Practice for Automatic Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D4306 Practice for Aviation Fuel Sample Containers for Tests Affected by Trace Contamination
D4806 Specification for Denatured Fuel Ethanol for Blending with Gasolines for Use as Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel
D4815 Test Method for Determination of MTBE, ETBE, TAME, DIPE, tertiary-Amyl Alcohol and C1 to C4 Alcohols in Gasoline by Gas Chromatography
D4953 Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Gasoline and Gasoline-Oxygenate Blends (Dry Method)
D5059 Test Methods for Lead in Gasoline by X-Ray Spectroscopy
D5188 Test Method for Vapor-Liquid Ratio Temperature Determination of Fuels (Evacuated Chamber and Piston Based Method)
D5191 Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Mini Method)
D5453 Test Method for Determination of Total Sulfur in Light Hydrocarbons, Spark Ignition Engine Fuel, Diesel Engine Fuel, and Engine Oil by Ultraviolet Fluorescence
D5482 Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Mini Method--Atmospheric)
D5500 Test Method for Vehicle Evaluation of Unleaded Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel for Intake Valve Deposit Formation
D5598 Test Method for Evaluating Unleaded Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel for Electronic Port Fuel Injector Fouling
D5599 Test Method for Determination of Oxygenates in Gasoline by Gas Chromatography and Oxygen Selective Flame Ionization Detection
D5842 Practice for Sampling and Handling of Fuels for Volatility Measurement
D5845 Test Method for Determination of MTBE, ETBE, TAME, DIPE, Methanol, Ethanol and tert-Butanol in Gasoline by Infrared Spectroscopy
D5854 Practice for Mixing and Handling of Liquid Samples of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D6378 Test Method for Determination of Vapor Pressure (VPX) of Petroleum Products, Hydrocarbons, and Hydrocarbon-Oxygenate Mixtures (Triple Expansion Method)
D6469 Guide for Microbial Contamination in Fuels and Fuel Systems
D6920 Test Method for Total Sulfur in Naphthas, Distillates, Reformulated Gasolines, Diesels, Biodiesels, and Motor Fuels by Oxidative Combustion and Electrochemical Detection
D7039 Test Method for Sulfur in Gasoline, Diesel Fuel, Jet Fuel, Kerosine, Biodiesel, Biodiesel Blends, and Gasoline-Ethanol Blends by Monochromatic Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
D7220 Test Method for Sulfur in Automotive, Heating, and Jet Fuels by Monochromatic Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
D7345 Test Method for Distillation of Petroleum Products and Liquid Fuels at Atmospheric Pressure (Micro Distillation Method)
D7667 Test Method for Determination of Corrosiveness to Silver by Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine FuelThin Silver Strip Method
D7671 Test Method for Corrosiveness to Silver by Automotive SparkIgnition Engine FuelSilver Strip Method
D7757 Test Method for Silicon in Gasoline and Related Products by Monochromatic Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
E29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data to Determine Conformance with Specifications
Other DocumentsAPI Recommended Practice 1640 Product Quality in Light Product Storage and Handling Operations Available from American Petroleum Institute (API), 1220 L. St., NW, Washington, DC 20005-4070, http://www.api.org/pubs. CRC Report No. 638 Intermediate-Temperature Volatility Program, 2003 Available from Coordinating Research Council (CRC), 5755 North Point Pkwy #265, Alpharetta, GA 30022, http://www.crcao.org. CRC Report No. 666
Government Regulations16 CFR Part 306 Automotive Fuel Ratings, Certification and Posting Available from U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, 732 N. Capitol St., NW, Mail Stop: SDE, Washington, DC 20401. CCR Title 17, §60100-§60114 California Code of Regulations Available from Barclays, 50 California Street, San Francisco, CA 94111. CFR 40 Code of Federal Regulations
ICS Number Code 75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)
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ASTM D4814-18a, Standard Specification for Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2018, www.astm.orgBack to Top