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    ASTM D4255 / D4255M - 20

    Standard Test Method for In-Plane Shear Properties of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials by the Rail Shear Method

    Active Standard ASTM D4255 / D4255M | Developed by Subcommittee: D30.04

    Book of Standards Volume: 15.03

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    Significance and Use

    5.1 These shear tests are designed to produce in-plane shear property data for material specifications, research and development, and design. Factors that influence the shear response and should therefore be reported include: material, methods of material preparation and lay-up, specimen stacking sequence, specimen preparation, specimen conditioning, environment of testing, specimen alignment and gripping, speed of testing, time at temperature, void content, and fiber volume reinforcement content. Properties that may be measured by this test method include:

    5.1.1 In-plane shear stress versus engineering shear strain response,

    5.1.2 In-plane shear chord modulus of elasticity,

    5.1.3 Offset shear stress, and

    5.1.4 Maximum in-plane shear stress. In cases in which the engineering shear strain at failure is greater than 5 %, the shear stress corresponding to 5 % engineering shear strain should be reported.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method determines the in-plane shear properties of high-modulus fiber-reinforced composite materials by either of two procedures. In Procedure A, laminates clamped between two pairs of loading rails are tested. When loaded in tension, the rails introduce shear forces in the specimen. In Procedure B, laminates clamped on opposite edges with a tensile or compressive force applied to a third pair of rails in the center are tested.

    1.2 Application of this test method is limited to continuous-fiber or discontinuous-fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites in the following material forms:

    1.2.1 Laminates composed only of unidirectional fibrous laminae, with the fiber direction oriented either parallel or perpendicular to the fixture rails.

    1.2.2 Laminates composed only of woven fabric filamentary laminae with the warp direction oriented either parallel or perpendicular to the fixture rails.

    1.2.3 Laminates of balanced and symmetric construction, with the 0° direction oriented either parallel or perpendicular to the fixture rails.

    1.2.4 Short-fiber-reinforced composites with a majority of the fibers being randomly distributed.

    Note 1: Additional test methods for determining in-plane shear properties of polymer matrix composites may be found in Test Methods D3518/D3518M, D5379/D5379M, D5448/D5448M, and D7078/D7078M.

    1.3 The reproducibility of this test method can be affected by the presence of shear stress gradients in the gage section and stress concentrations at the gripping areas. Test Methods D5379/D5379M and D7078/D7078M provide superior shear response in comparison to this test method, as their specimen configurations produce a relatively pure and uniform shear stress state in the gage section.

    1.4 The technical content of this standard has been stable since 2001 without significant objection from its stakeholders. As there is limited technical support for the maintenance of this standard, changes since that date have been limited to items required to retain consistency with other ASTM D30 Committee standards, including editorial changes and incorporation of updated guidance on micrometers and calipers, strain gage requirements, speed of testing, specimen preconditioning and environmental testing. Future maintenance of the standard will only be in response to specific requests and performed only as technical support allows.

    1.5 Units—The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system are not necessarily exact equivalents; therefore, to ensure conformance with the standard, each system shall be used independently of the other, and values from the two systems shall not be combined.

    1.5.1 Within the text the inch-pounds units are shown in brackets.

    1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    1.7 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D792 Test Methods for Density and Specific Gravity (Relative Density) of Plastics by Displacement

    D883 Terminology Relating to Plastics

    D2584 Test Method for Ignition Loss of Cured Reinforced Resins

    D2734 Test Methods for Void Content of Reinforced Plastics

    D3171 Test Methods for Constituent Content of Composite Materials

    D3518/D3518M Test Method for In-Plane Shear Response of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials by Tensile Test of a 45 Laminate

    D3878 Terminology for Composite Materials

    D5229/D5229M Test Method for Moisture Absorption Properties and Equilibrium Conditioning of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials

    D5379/D5379M Test Method for Shear Properties of Composite Materials by the V-Notched Beam Method

    D5448/D5448M Test Method for Inplane Shear Properties of Hoop Wound Polymer Matrix Composite Cylinders

    D7078/D7078M Test Method for Shear Properties of Composite Materials by V-Notched Rail Shear Method

    E4 Practices for Force Verification of Testing Machines

    E6 Terminology Relating to Methods of Mechanical Testing

    E111 Test Method for Youngs Modulus, Tangent Modulus, and Chord Modulus

    E122 Practice for Calculating Sample Size to Estimate, With Specified Precision, the Average for a Characteristic of a Lot or Process

    E177 Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods

    E251 Test Methods for Performance Characteristics of Metallic Bonded Resistance Strain Gages

    E456 Terminology Relating to Quality and Statistics

    E1237 Guide for Installing Bonded Resistance Strain Gages

    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 83.140.20 (Laminated sheets)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code

    Referencing This Standard
    Link Here
    Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.)

    DOI: 10.1520/D4255_D4255M-20

    Citation Format

    ASTM D4255 / D4255M-20, Standard Test Method for In-Plane Shear Properties of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials by the Rail Shear Method, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2020, www.astm.org

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