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    ASTM D4105 / D4105M - 20

    Standard Practice for (Analytical Procedure) for Determining Transmissivity and Storage Coefficient of Nonleaky Confined Aquifers by the Modified Theis Nonequilibrium Method

    Active Standard ASTM D4105 / D4105M | Developed by Subcommittee: D18.21

    Book of Standards Volume: 04.08

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    Significance and Use

    5.1 Assumptions: 

    5.1.1 Well discharges at a constant rate, Q.

    5.1.2 Well is of infinitesimal diameter and fully penetrates the aquifer, that is, the well is open to the full thickness of the aquifer.

    5.1.3 The nonleaky aquifer is homogeneous, isotropic, and areally extensive. A nonleaky aquifer receives insignificant contribution of water from confining beds.

    5.1.4 Discharge from the well is derived exclusively from storage in the aquifer.

    5.1.5 The geometry of the assumed aquifer and well conditions are shown in Fig. 1.

    5.2.3 Application of Theis Nonequilibrium Method to Unconfined Aquifers: Although the assumptions are applicable to confined conditions, the Theis solution may be applied to unconfined aquifers if drawdown is small compared with the saturated thickness of the aquifer or if the drawdown is corrected for reduction in thickness of the aquifer and the effects of delayed gravity yield are small. Reduction in Aquifer Thickness—In an unconfined aquifer, dewatering occurs when the water levels decline in the vicinity of a pumping well. Corrections in drawdown need to be made when the drawdown is a significant fraction of the aquifer thickness as shown by Jacob (8). The drawdown, s, needs to be replaced by s′, the drawdown that would occur in an equivalent confined aquifer, where:

    Equation D4105_D4105M-20_10 Gravity Yield Effects—In unconfined aquifers, delayed gravity yield effects may invalidate measurements of drawdown during the early part of the test for application to the Theis method. Effects of delayed gravity yield are negligible in partially penetrating observation wells at a distance, r, from the control well, where:

    Equation D4105_D4105M-20_11

    after the time, t, as given in the following equation from Neuman (9):

    Equation D4105_D4105M-20_12


    Sy   =   the specific yield.

    For fully penetrating observation wells, the effects of delayed yield are negligible at the distance, r, in Eq 11 after one tenth of the time given in the Eq 12.

    Note 2: The quality of the result produced by this standard is dependent on the competence of the personnel performing it, and the suitability of the equipment and facilities used. Agencies that meet the criteria of Practice D3740 are generally considered capable of competent and objective testing/sampling/inspection/etc. Users of this standard are cautioned that compliance with Practice D3740 does not in itself assure reliable results. Reliable results depend on many factors; Practice D3740 provides a means of evaluating some of those factors.

    Note 3: The injection of water into an aquifer may be regulated or require regulatory approvals. Withdrawal of contaminated waters may require that the removed water be properly treated prior to discharge.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This practice covers an analytical procedure for determining transmissivity and storage coefficient of a nonleaky confined aquifer under conditions of radial flow to a fully penetrating well of constant flux. This practice is a shortcut procedure used to apply the Theis nonequilibrium method. The Theis method is described in Practice D4106.

    1.2 This practice, along with others, is used in conjunction with the field procedure given in Test Method D4050.

    1.3 Limitations—The limitations of this practice are primarily related to the correspondence between the field situation and the simplifying assumptions of this practice (see 5.1). Furthermore, application is valid only for values of u less than 0.01 (u is defined in Eq 2, in 8.6).

    1.4 All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D6026.

    1.4.1 The procedures used to specify how data are collected/recorded or calculated, in this standard are regarded as the industry standard. In addition, they are representative of the significant digits that generally should be retained. The procedures used do not consider material variation, purpose for obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any considerations for the user’s objectives; and it is common practice to increase or reduce significant digits of reported data to be commensurate with these considerations. It is beyond the scope of this standard to consider significant digits used in analytical methods for engineering design.

    1.5 Units—The values stated in either SI Units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard. Reporting of results in units other than SI shall not be regarded as nonconformance with this practice.

    1.6 This practice offers a set of instructions for performing one or more specific operations. This document cannot replace education or experience and should be used in conjunction with professional judgment. Not all aspects of the practice may be applicable in all circumstances. This ASTM standard is not intended to represent or replace the standard of care by which the adequacy of a given professional service must be judged, nor should this document be applied without the consideration of a project’s many unique aspects. The word “Standard” in the title of this document means only that the document has been approved through the ASTM consensus process.

    1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    1.8 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D653 Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids

    D3740 Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction

    D4043 Guide for Selection of Aquifer Test Method in Determining Hydraulic Properties by Well Techniques

    D4050 Test Method for (Field Procedure) for Withdrawal and Injection Well Testing for Determining Hydraulic Properties of Aquifer Systems

    D4106 Practice for (Analytical Procedure) for Determining Transmissivity and Storage Coefficient of Nonleaky Confined Aquifers by the Theis Nonequilibrium Method

    D6026 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data

    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 93.160 (Hydraulic construction)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 70171503(Ground or surface water surveying)

    Referencing This Standard
    Link Here
    Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.)

    DOI: 10.1520/D4105_D4105M-20

    Citation Format

    ASTM D4105 / D4105M-20, Standard Practice for (Analytical Procedure) for Determining Transmissivity and Storage Coefficient of Nonleaky Confined Aquifers by the Modified Theis Nonequilibrium Method, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2020, www.astm.org

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