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Significance and Use
5.1 Assumptions of Solution of Cooper et al (: )
5.1.1 The head change in the control well is instantaneous at time t = 0.
5.1.2 Well is of finite diameter and fully penetrates the aquifer.
5.1.3 Flow in the nonleaky aquifer is radial.
Note 2: The exact conservation equation of Richards (with the volumetric water content can be simplified to take the form used in the solution of )(with the storage coefficient, which implies several assumptions including that of constant total stresses )(. )
5.2 Implications of Assumptions:
5.2.1 The mathematical equations applied ignore inertial effects and assume the water level returns the static level in an approximate exponential manner. The geometric configuration of the well and aquifer are shown in .
FIG. 1 Cross Section Through a Well in Which a Slug of Water is Suddenly Injected
5.2.2 Assumptions are applicable to artesian or confined conditions and fully penetrating wells. However, this practice is commonly applied to partially penetrating wells and in unconfined aquifers where it may provide estimates of hydraulic conductivity for the aquifer interval adjacent to the open interval of the well if the horizontal hydraulic conductivity is significantly greater than the vertical hydraulic conductivity.
Note 3: Slug and pumping tests implicitly assume a porous medium. Fractured rock and carbonate settings may not provide meaningful data and information.
5.2.3 As pointed out by Cooper et al ( the determination of storage coefficient by this practice has questionable reliability because of the similar shape of the curves, whereas, the determination of transmissivity is not as sensitive to choosing the correct curve. However, the curve selected should not imply a storage coefficient unrealistically large or small. )
Note 4: The quality of the result produced by this standard is dependent on the competence of the personnel performing it, and the suitability of the equipment and facilities used. Agencies that meet the criteria of Practice are generally considered capable of competent and objective testing/sampling/inspection/etc. Users of this standard are cautioned that compliance with Practice does not in itself assure reliable results. Reliable results depend on many factors; Practice provides a means of evaluating some of those factors.
Note 5: Some published literature ( have discussed the appropriateness of the slug test. These have not been universally accepted and the industry continues to use this practice. , )
1.1 This practice covers the determination of transmissivity from the measurement of force-free (overdamped) response of a well-aquifer system to a sudden change of water level in a well. Force-free response of water level in a well to a sudden change in water level is characterized by recovery to initial water level in an approximate exponential manner with negligible inertial effects.
1.2 The analytical procedure in this practice is used in conjunction with the field procedure in Test Method for collection of test data.
1.3 Limitations—Slug tests are considered to provide an estimate of transmissivity. Although the assumptions of this practice prescribe a fully penetrating well (a well open through the full thickness of the aquifer), the slug test is commonly conducted using a partially penetrating well. Such a practice may be acceptable for application under conditions in which the aquifer is stratified and horizontal hydraulic conductivity is much greater than vertical hydraulic conductivity. In such a case the test would be considered to be representative of the average hydraulic conductivity of the portion of the aquifer adjacent to the open interval of the well.
1.4 All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Practice .
1.4.1 The procedures used to specify how data are collected/recorded and calculated in the standard are regarded as the industry standard. In addition, they are representative of the significant digits that generally should be retained. The procedures used do not consider material variation, purpose for obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any considerations for the user’s objectives; and it is common practice to increase or reduce significant digits of reported data to be commensurate with these considerations. It is beyond the scope of this practice to consider significant digits used in analysis methods for engineering data.
1.5 Units—The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in nonconformance with the standard. Reporting of results in units other than SI shall not be regarded as nonconformance with this standard.
1.6 This practice offers a set of instructions for performing one or more specific operations. This document cannot replace education or experience and should be used in conjunction with professional judgment. Not all aspects of the practice may be applicable in all circumstances. This ASTM standard is not intended to represent or replace the standard of care by which the adequacy of a given professional service must be judged, nor should this document be applied without the consideration of a project’s many unique aspects. The word “Standard” in the title of this document means only that the document has been approved through the ASTM consensus process.
1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.8 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D653 Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
D3740 Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
D4043 Guide for Selection of Aquifer Test Method in Determining Hydraulic Properties by Well Techniques
D4044/D4044M Test Method for (Field Procedure) for Instantaneous Change in Head (Slug) Tests for Determining Hydraulic Properties of Aquifers
D4750 Test Method for Determining Subsurface Liquid Levels in a Borehole or Monitoring Well (Observation Well)
D5912 Practice for (Analytical Procedure) Determining Hydraulic Conductivity of an Unconfined Aquifer by Overdamped Well Response to Instantaneous Change in Head (Slug)
D6026 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
ICS Number Code 13.060.10 (Water of natural resources)
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ASTM D4104 / D4104M-20, Standard Practice for (Analytical Procedures) Determining Transmissivity of Nonleaky Confined Aquifers by Overdamped Well Response to Instantaneous Change in Head (Slug Tests), ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2020, www.astm.orgBack to Top