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This specification covers grades of fuel oil intended for use in various types of fuel-oil-burning equipment under various climatic and operating conditions. These grades include the following: Grades No. 1 S5000, No. 1 S500, No. 2 S5000, and No. 2 S500 for use in domestic and small industrial burners; Grades No. 1 S5000 and No. 1 S500 adapted to vaporizing type burners or where storage conditions require low pour point fuel; Grades No. 4 (Light) and No. 4 (Heavy) for use in commercial/industrial burners; and Grades No. 5 (Light), No. 5 (Heavy), and No. 6 for use in industrial burners. Preheating is usually required for handling and proper atomization. The grades of fuel oil shall be homogeneous hydrocarbon oils, free from inorganic acid, and free from excessive amounts of solid or fibrous foreign matter. Grades containing residual components shall remain uniform in normal storage and not separate by gravity into light and heavy oil components outside the viscosity limits for the grade. The grades of fuel oil shall conform to the limiting requirements prescribed for: (1) flash point, (2) water and sediment, (3) physical distillation or simulated distillation, (4) kinematic viscosity, (5) Ramsbottom carbon residue, (6) ash, (7) sulfur, (8) copper strip corrosion, (9) density, and (10) pour point. The test methods for determining conformance to the specified properties are given.
This abstract is a brief summary of the referenced standard. It is informational only and not an official part of the standard; the full text of the standard itself must be referred to for its use and application. ASTM does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents of this abstract are accurate, complete or up to date.
1.1 This specification (see ) covers grades of fuel oil intended for use in various types of fuel-oil-burning equipment under various climatic and operating conditions. These grades are described as follows:
1.1.1 Grades No. 1 S5000, No. 1 S500, No. 1 S15, No. 2 S5000, No. 2 S500, and No. 2 S15 are middle distillate fuels for use in domestic and small industrial burners. Grades No. 1 S5000, No. 1 S500, and No. 1 S15 are particularly adapted to vaporizing type burners or where storage conditions require low pour point fuel.
1.1.2 Grades B6–B20 S5000, B6–B20 S500, and B6–B20 S15 are middle distillate fuel/biodiesel blends for use in domestic and small industrial burners.
1.1.3 Grades No. 4 (Light) and No. 4 are heavy distillate fuels or middle distillate/residual fuel blends used in commercial/industrial burners equipped for this viscosity range.
1.1.4 Grades No. 5 (Light), No. 5 (Heavy), and No. 6 are residual fuels of increasing viscosity and boiling range, used in industrial burners. Preheating is usually required for handling and proper atomization.
Note 1: For information on the significance of the terminology and test methods used in this specification, see .
Note 2: A more detailed description of the grades of fuel oils is given in .
1.2 This specification is for the use of purchasing agencies in formulating specifications to be included in contracts for purchases of fuel oils and for the guidance of consumers of fuel oils in the selection of the grades most suitable for their needs.
1.3 Nothing in this specification shall preclude observance of federal, state, or local regulations which can be more restrictive.
1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard.
1.4.1 Non-SI units are provided in Table 1 and Table 2 and in / because these are common units used in the industry.
Note 3: The generation and dissipation of static electricity can create problems in the handling of distillate burner fuel oils. For more information on the subject, see Guide .
1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D56 Test Method for Flash Point by Tag Closed Cup Tester
D86 Test Method for Distillation of Petroleum Products and Liquid Fuels at Atmospheric Pressure
D93 Test Methods for Flash Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Tester
D95 Test Method for Water in Petroleum Products and Bituminous Materials by Distillation
D97 Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products
D129 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (General High Pressure Decomposition Device Method)
D130 Test Method for Corrosiveness to Copper from Petroleum Products by Copper Strip Test
D445 Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity)
D473 Test Method for Sediment in Crude Oils and Fuel Oils by the Extraction Method
D482 Test Method for Ash from Petroleum Products
D524 Test Method for Ramsbottom Carbon Residue of Petroleum Products
D664 Test Method for Acid Number of Petroleum Products by Potentiometric Titration
D975 Specification for Diesel Fuel
D1266 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (Lamp Method)
D1298 Test Method for Density, Relative Density, or API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Liquid Petroleum Products by Hydrometer Method
D1552 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products by High Temperature Combustion and Infrared (IR) Detection or Thermal Conductivity Detection (TCD)
D2500 Test Method for Cloud Point of Petroleum Products and Liquid Fuels
D2622 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
D2624 Test Methods for Electrical Conductivity of Aviation and Distillate Fuels
D2709 Test Method for Water and Sediment in Middle Distillate Fuels by Centrifuge
D2887 Test Method for Boiling Range Distribution of Petroleum Fractions by Gas Chromatography
D3828 Test Methods for Flash Point by Small Scale Closed Cup Tester
D4052 Test Method for Density, Relative Density, and API Gravity of Liquids by Digital Density Meter
D4057 Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D4177 Practice for Automatic Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D4294 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum and Petroleum Products by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
D4306 Practice for Aviation Fuel Sample Containers for Tests Affected by Trace Contamination
D4308 Test Method for Electrical Conductivity of Liquid Hydrocarbons by Precision Meter
D4865 Guide for Generation and Dissipation of Static Electricity in Petroleum Fuel Systems
D5453 Test Method for Determination of Total Sulfur in Light Hydrocarbons, Spark Ignition Engine Fuel, Diesel Engine Fuel, and Engine Oil by Ultraviolet Fluorescence
D5842 Practice for Sampling and Handling of Fuels for Volatility Measurement
D5854 Practice for Mixing and Handling of Liquid Samples of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D5949 Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products (Automatic Pressure Pulsing Method)
D5950 Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products (Automatic Tilt Method)
D5985 Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products (Rotational Method)
D6079 Test Method for Evaluating Lubricity of Diesel Fuels by the High-Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR)
D6469 Guide for Microbial Contamination in Fuels and Fuel Systems
D6749 Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products (Automatic Air Pressure Method)
D6751 Specification for Biodiesel Fuel Blend Stock (B100) for Middle Distillate Fuels
D6892 Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products (Robotic Tilt Method)
D7039 Test Method for Sulfur in Gasoline, Diesel Fuel, Jet Fuel, Kerosine, Biodiesel, Biodiesel Blends, and Gasoline-Ethanol Blends by Monochromatic Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
D7042 Test Method for Dynamic Viscosity and Density of Liquids by Stabinger Viscometer (and the Calculation of Kinematic Viscosity)
D7094 Test Method for Flash Point by Modified Continuously Closed Cup (MCCCFP) Tester
D7220 Test Method for Sulfur in Automotive, Heating, and Jet Fuels by Monochromatic Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
D7344 Test Method for Distillation of Petroleum Products and Liquid Fuels at Atmospheric Pressure (Mini Method)
D7345 Test Method for Distillation of Petroleum Products and Liquid Fuels at Atmospheric Pressure (Micro Distillation Method)
D7346 Test Method for No Flow Point and Pour Point of Petroleum Products and Liquid Fuels
D7371 Test Method for Determination of Biodiesel (Fatty Acid Methyl Esters) Content in Diesel Fuel Oil Using Mid Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR-PLS Method)
D7688 Test Method for Evaluating Lubricity of Diesel Fuels by the High-Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR) by Visual Observation
D7861 Test Method for Determination of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) in Diesel Fuel by Linear Variable Filter (LVF) Array Based Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy
D7945 Test Method for Determination of Dynamic Viscosity and Derived Kinematic Viscosity of Liquids by Constant Pressure Viscometer
E29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data to Determine Conformance with Specifications
Other Documents26 CFR Part 48 Diesel Fuel Excise Tax; Dye Color and Concentration Available from U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, 732 N. Capitol St., NW, Mail Stop: SDE, Washington, DC 20401. 40 CFR Part 80 Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives
ICS Number Code 75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)
UNSPSC Code 15101700(Fuel Oils)
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ASTM D396-20, Standard Specification for Fuel Oils, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2020, www.astm.orgBack to Top