ASTM D3874 - 20

    Standard Test Method for Ignition of Materials by Hot Wire Sources

    Active Standard ASTM D3874 | Developed by Subcommittee: D09.17

    Book of Standards Volume: 10.02


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    Significance and Use

    5.1 During operation of electrical equipment, including wires, resistors, and other conductors, it is possible for overheating to occur, under certain conditions of operation or when malfunctions occur. When this happens, a possible result is ignition of the insulation material.

    5.2 This test method assesses the relative resistance of electrical insulating materials to ignition by the effect of hot wire sources.

    5.3 This test method determines the average time, in seconds, required for material specimens to ignite under the specified conditions of test.

    5.4 This method is suitable to characterize materials, subject to the appropriate limitations of an expected precision of ±15 %, to categorize materials.

    5.5 In this procedure the specimens are subjected to one or more specific sets of laboratory conditions. If different test conditions are substituted or the end-use conditions are changed, it is not always possible by or from this test to predict changes in the fire-test-response characteristics measured. Therefore, the results are valid only for the fire test exposure conditions described in this procedure.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method is intended to differentiate, in a preliminary fashion, among materials with respect to their resistance to ignition because of their proximity to electrically-heated wires and other heat sources.2

    1.2 This test method applies to molded or sheet materials available in thicknesses up to and including 13.0 mm (0.51 in.).

    1.3 This test method applies to materials that are rigid or flexible at normal room temperatures. It is important to minimize deformation during preparation, especially during the wire-wrapping step described in 10.1, by following the method outlined under Clause 10, Sample Preparation. Examples of deformation include bowing, in either a transverse or a longitudinal direction, twisting of the specimen, and indentation of the wire into the specimen during the wire-wrapping step, to a degree visible to the eye.

    1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses after SI units are provided for information only and are not considered standard. (See SI10 for further details.)

    1.5 This test method measures and describes the response of materials, products, or assemblies to heat and flame under controlled conditions, but does not by itself incorporate all factors required for fire hazard or fire risk assessment of the materials, products, or assemblies under actual fire conditions.

    1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    1.7 Fire testing is inherently hazardous. Adequate safeguards for personnel and property shall be employed in conducting these tests.

    Note 1: Although this test method and IEC TS 60695-2-20 (withdrawn) differ in approach and in detail, data obtained using either are technically equivalent.

    1.8 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D1711 Terminology Relating to Electrical Insulation

    D6194 Test Method for Glow-Wire Ignition of Materials

    E176 Terminology of Fire Standards

    E3020 Practice for Ignition Sources

    IEC Standards

    IEC 60695-4

    IEC TS 60695-2-20:2004 Fire Hazard TestingSection 20: Glowing/Hot-wire Based Test Methods, Hot-wire Coil Ignitability Test on Materials (withdrawn)

    ISO Standard

    ISO 13943 Fire SafetyVocabulary


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 13.220.40 (Ignitability and burning behaviour of materials and products); 29.035.01 (Insulating materials in general)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 26121501(Heating wire)


    Referencing This Standard
    Link Here
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    DOI: 10.1520/D3874-20

    Citation Format

    ASTM D3874-20, Standard Test Method for Ignition of Materials by Hot Wire Sources, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2020, www.astm.org

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