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    ASTM D276-12

    Standard Test Methods for Identification of Fibers in Textiles (Withdrawn 2021)

    Withdrawn Standard: ASTM D276-12 | Developed by Subcommittee: D13.51


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    Withdrawn Rationale:

    These test methods cover the identification of the following textile fibers used commercially in the United States:

    Acetate (secondary)

    Nylon

     

    Acrylic

    Nytril

     

    Anidex

    Olefin

     

    Aramid

    Polycarbonate

     

    Asbestos

    Polyester

     

    Cotton

    Ramie

     

    Cuprammonium rayon

    Rayon (viscose)

     

    Flax

    Saran

     

    Fluorocarbon

    Silk

     

    Glass

    Spandex

     

    Hemp

    Triacetate

     

    Jute

    Vinal

     

    Lycocell

    Vinyon

     

    Modacrylic

    Wool

     

    Novoloid

     

     

    Formerly under the jurisdiction of Committee D13 on Textiles, these test methods were withdrawn in January 2021 in accordance with section 10.6.3 of the Regulations Governing ASTM Technical Committees, which requires that standards shall be updated by the end of the eighth year since the last approval date.

    1. Scope

    1.1 These test methods cover the identification of the following textile fibers used commercially in the United States:

    Acetate (secondary)Nylon
    Acrylic Nytril
    Anidex Olefin
    Aramid Polycarbonate
    AsbestosPolyester
    Cotton Ramie
    Cuprammonium rayonRayon (viscose)
    Flax Saran
    FluorocarbonSilk
    Glass Spandex
    Hemp Triacetate
    Jute Vinal
    LycocellVinyon
    ModacrylicWool
    Novoloid

    1.2 Man-made fibers are listed in 1.1 under the generic names approved by the Federal Trade Commission and listed in Terminology D123, Annex A1 (except for fluorocarbon and polycarbonate). Many of the generic classes of man-made fibers are produced by several manufacturers and sold under various trademark names as follows (Note 1):

    Acetate Acele®, Aviscon®, Celanese®, Chromspun®, Estron®
    Acrylic Acrilan®, Courtelle®, Creslan®, Dralon®, Orlon®, Zefran®
    Anidex Anim/8®
    Aramid Kevlar®, Nomex®, Technora®, TeijinConex®, Twaron®
    CuprammoniumBemberg®
    FluorocarbonTeflon®
    Glass Fiberglas®, Garan®, Modiglass®, PPG®, Ultrastrand®
    Lyocell Tencel®
    ModacrylicDynel®, Kanecaron®, Monsanto SEF®, Verel®
    NovoloidKynol®
    Polyamide
    (Nylon) 6Caprolan®,Enka®, Perlon®, Zefran®, Enkalon®
    Polyamide
    (Nylon) 6, 6Antron®, Blue C®, Cantrece®, Celanese Phillips®, Enka®Nylon
    Polyamide
    (Nylon) (other)Rilsan®(nylon 11), Qiana®, StanylEnka®,(Nylon 4,6)
    Nytril Darvan®
    Olefin Durel®, Herculon®, Marvess®, Polycrest®
    PolyesterAvlin®, Beaunit®, Blue C®, Dacron®, Encron®, Fortrel®, Kodel®, Quintess®, Spectran®, Trevira®, Vyoron®, Zephran®, Diolen®, Vectran®
    Rayon Avril®, Avisco®, Dynacor®, Enka®, Fiber 700®, Fibro®, Nupron®, Rayflex®, Suprenka®, Tyrex®, Tyron®, Cordenka®
    Saran Enjay®, Saran®
    Spandex Glospun®, Lycra®, Numa®, Unel®
    TriacetateArnel®
    Vinyon Avisco®, Clevyl®, Rhovyl®, Thermovyl®, Volpex®

    Note 1—The list of trademarks in 1.2 contains only examples and does not include all brands produced in the United States or abroad and imported for sale in the United States. The list does not include examples of fibers from two (or more) generic classes of polymers spun into a single filament. Additional information on fiber types and trademarks is given in Refs (1, 2, and 3).

    1.3 Most manufacturers offer a variety of fiber types of a specific generic class. Differences in tenacity, linear density, bulkiness, or the presence of inert delustrants normally do not interfere with analytic tests, but chemical modifications (for such purposes as increased dyeability with certain dyestuffs) may affect the infrared spectra and some of the physical properties, particularly the melting point. Many generic classes of fibers are sold with a variety of cross-section shapes designed for specific purposes. These differences will be evident upon microscopical examination of the fiber and may interfere with the measurements of refractive indices and birefringence.

    1.4 Microscopical examination is indispensable for positive identification of the several types of cellulosic and animal fibers, because the infrared spectra and solubilities will not distinguish between species. Procedures for microscopic identification are published in AATCC Method 20 and in References (4-12).

    1.5 Analyses by infrared spectroscopy and solubility relationships are the preferred methods for identifying man-made fibers. The analysis scheme based on solubility is very reliable. The infrared technique is a useful adjunct to the solubility test method. The other methods, especially microscopical examination are generally not suitable for positive identification of most man-made fibers and are useful primarily to support solubility and infrared spectra identifications.

    1.6 These test methods include the following sections:

    Section
    Scope1
    Referenced Documents2
    Terminology3
    Summary of Test Methods4
    Significance and Use5
    Sampling, Selection, Preparation and Number of Specimens6
    Reference Standards7
    Purity of Reagents8
    Fiber Identification by
    Microscopic Examination9,10
    Solubility Relationships11-16
    Infrared Spectroscopy17-23
    Physical Properties to Confirm Identification
    Density24-27
    Melting Point28-33
    Birefringence by Difference of 34 and 35
    Refractive Indices

    1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. See Note 3.



    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D123 Terminology Relating to Textiles

    D629 Test Methods for Quantitative Analysis of Textiles

    D792 Test Methods for Density and Specific Gravity (Relative Density) of Plastics by Displacement

    D941 Test Method for Density and Relative Density (Specific Gravity) of Liquids by Lipkin Bicapillary Pycnometer

    D1217 Test Method for Density and Relative Density (Specific Gravity) of Liquids by Bingham Pycnometer

    D1776 Practice for Conditioning and Testing Textiles

    E131 Terminology Relating to Molecular Spectroscopy

    E175 Terminology of Microscopy

    AATCC Method

    Test Method 20A Fiber Analysis: Quantitative


    Referencing This Standard
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    DOI: 10.1520/D0276-12

    Citation Format

    ASTM D276-12, Standard Test Methods for Identification of Fibers in Textiles (Withdrawn 2021), ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2012, www.astm.org

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