Active Standard ASTM D1688 Developed by Subcommittee: D19.05
Book of Standards Volume: 11.01
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Significance and Use
4.1 Copper is found in naturally occurring minerals principally as a sulfide, oxide, or carbonate. It makes up approximately 0.01 % of the earth's crust and is obtained commercially from such ores as chalcopyrite (CuFeS2). Copper is also found in biological complexes such as hemocyanin.
4.2 Copper enters water supplies through the natural process of dissolution of minerals, through industrial effluents, through its use, as copper sulfate, to control biological growth in some reservoirs and distribution systems, and through corrosion of copper alloy water pipes. Industries whose wastewaters may contain significant concentrations of copper include mining, ammunition production, and most metal plating and finishing operations. It may occur in simple ionic form or in one of many complexes with such groups as cyanide, chloride, ammonia, or organic ligands.
4.3 Although its salts, particularly copper sulfate, inhibit biological growth such as some algae and bacteria, copper is considered essential to human nutrition and is not considered a toxic chemical at concentrations normally found in water supplies.
4.4 ICP-MS or ICP-AES may also be appropriate but at a higher instrument cost. See Test Methods and .