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Significance and Use
4.1 Hexavalent chromium salts are used extensively in metal finishing and plating applications, in anodizing aluminum, and in the manufacture of paints, dyes, explosives, and ceramics. Trivalent chromium salts are used as mordants in textile dyeing, in the ceramic and glass industry, in the leather industry as a tanning agent, and in photography. Chromium may be present in wastewater from these industries and may also be discharged from chromate-treated cooling waters.
4.2 The hexavalent state of chromium is toxic to humans, animals, and aquatic life. It can produce lung tumors when inhaled and readily induces skin sensitization.
1.1 These test methods cover the determination of hexavalent and total chromium in water. Section on Quality Control pertains to these test methods. Three test methods are included as follows:
0.01 to 0.5 mg/L
0.1 to 10 mg/L
C—Atomic Absorption, Graphite
5 to 100 μg/L
1.2 Test Method A is a photometric method that measures dissolved hexavalent chromium only. Hexavalent chromium can also be determined by ion chromatography, see Test Method . Test Methods B and C are atomic absorption methods that are generally applicable to the determination of dissolved or total recoverable chromium in water without regard to valence state. ICP-MS or ICP-AES may also be appropriate but at a higher instrument cost. See Test Methods and .
1.3 Test Method A has been used successfully with reagent grade water Types I, II, and III, tap water, 10 % NaCl solution, treated water from a synthetic organic industrial plant that meets National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit requirements, and EPA-extraction procedure leachate water, process water, lake water, effluent treatment, that is, lime neutralization and precipitation of spent pickle liquor and associated rinse water from stainless steel pickling. Test Method C has been used successfully with reagent water, stock scrubber water, lake water, filtered tap water, river water, well water, production plant water, and a condensate from a medium BTU coal gasification process. Matrices used, except for reagent water, are not available for Test Method B. It is the user's responsibility to ensure the validity of these test methods for waters of untested matrices.
1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversion to inch-pound units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific hazard statements, see , , and .
1.6 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D858 Test Methods for Manganese in Water
D1066 Practice for Sampling Steam
D1068 Test Methods for Iron in Water
D1129 Terminology Relating to Water
D1193 Specification for Reagent Water
D1688 Test Methods for Copper in Water
D1691 Test Methods for Zinc in Water
D1886 Test Methods for Nickel in Water
D1976 Test Method for Elements in Water by Inductively-Coupled Argon Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy
D2777 Practice for Determination of Precision and Bias of Applicable Test Methods of Committee D19 on Water
D3370 Practices for Sampling Water from Closed Conduits
D3557 Test Methods for Cadmium in Water
D3558 Test Methods for Cobalt in Water
D3559 Test Methods for Lead in Water
D3919 Practice for Measuring Trace Elements in Water by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry
D4691 Practice for Measuring Elements in Water by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry
D4841 Practice for Estimation of Holding Time for Water Samples Containing Organic and Inorganic Constituents
D5257 Test Method for Dissolved Hexavalent Chromium in Water by Ion Chromatography
D5673 Test Method for Elements in Water by Inductively Coupled PlasmaMass Spectrometry
D5810 Guide for Spiking into Aqueous Samples
D5847 Practice for Writing Quality Control Specifications for Standard Test Methods for Water Analysis
E60 Practice for Analysis of Metals, Ores, and Related Materials by Spectrophotometry
E275 Practice for Describing and Measuring Performance of Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrophotometers
ICS Number Code 13.060.50 (Examination of water for chemical substances)
|Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.)|
ASTM D1687-17, Standard Test Methods for Chromium in Water, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2017, www.astm.orgBack to Top