Active Standard ASTM D1646 Developed by Subcommittee: D11.12
Book of Standards Volume: 09.01
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Significance and Use
5.1 Viscosity—Viscosity values determined by this test method depend on molecular structure, molecular weight, and non-rubber constituents that may be present. Since rubber behaves as a non-Newtonian fluid, no simple relationship exists between the molecular weight and the viscosity. Therefore, caution must be exercised in interpreting viscosity values of rubber, particularly in cases where molecular weight is very high. For example, as the molecular weight increases, the viscosity values for IIR polymers (butyl rubbers) reach an upper limit of about 80, at 100°C (212°F) using a large rotor at a rotation speed of 2 r/min, and may then decrease to considerably lower values. For these higher molecular weight rubbers, better correlation between viscosity values and molecular weight is obtained if the test temperature is increased.
5.2 Stress Relaxation—The stress relaxation behavior of rubber is a combination of both an elastic and a viscous response. Viscosity and stress relaxation behavior do not depend on such factors as molecular weight and non-rubber constituents in the same way. Thus both of these tests are important and complement each other. A slow rate of relaxation indicates a higher elastic component in the overall response, while a rapid rate of relaxation indicates a higher viscous component. The rate of stress relaxation has been found to correlate with rubber structure characteristics such as molecular weight distribution, chain branching, and gel content.
5.3 Pre-Vulcanization Characteristics—The onset of vulcanization can be detected with the Mooney viscometer as evidenced by an increase in viscosity. Therefore, this test method can be used to measure incipient cure (scorch) time and the rate of cure during very early stages of vulcanization. This test method cannot be used to study complete vulcanization because the continuous rotation of the disk will result in slippage when the specimen reaches a stiff consistency.