If you are an ASTM Compass Subscriber and this document is part of your subscription, you can access it for free at ASTM Compass
    ASTM D143 - 21

    Standard Test Methods for Small Clear Specimens of Timber

    Active Standard ASTM D143 | Developed by Subcommittee: D07.01

    Book of Standards Volume: 04.10

      Format Pages Price  
    PDF 32 $78.00   ADD TO CART
    Hardcopy (shipping and handling) 32 $78.00   ADD TO CART
    Standard + Redline PDF Bundle 64 $92.00   ADD TO CART

    Significance and Use

    4.1 These test methods cover tests on small clear specimens of wood that are made to provide the following:

    4.1.1 Data for comparing the mechanical properties of various species,

    4.1.2 Data for the establishment of correct strength functions, which in conjunction with results of tests of timbers in structural sizes (see Test Methods D198 and Test Methods D4761), afford a basis for establishing allowable stresses, and

    4.1.3 Data to determine the influence on the mechanical properties of such factors as density, locality of growth, position in cross section, height of timber in the tree, change of properties with seasoning or treatment with chemicals, and change from sapwood to heartwood.

    1. Scope

    1.1 These test methods cover the determination of various strength and related properties of wood by testing small clear specimens.

    1.1.1 These test methods represent procedures for evaluating the different mechanical and physical properties, controlling factors such as specimen size, moisture content, temperature, and rate of loading.

    1.1.2 Sampling and collection of material is discussed in Practice D5536. Sample data, computation sheets, and cards have been incorporated, which were of assistance to the investigator in systematizing records.

    1.1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. When a weight is prescribed, the basic inch-pound unit of weight (lbf) and the basic SI unit of mass (Kg) are cited.

    1.2 The procedures for the various tests appear in the following order:



    Photographs of Specimens


    Control of Moisture Content and Temperature


    Record of Heartwood and Sapwood


    Static Bending


    Compression Parallel to Grain


    Impact Bending




    Compression Perpendicular to Grain




    Shear Parallel to Grain




    Tension Parallel to Grain


    Tension Perpendicular to Grain


    Nail Withdrawal


    Specific Gravity and Shrinkage in Volume


    Radial and Tangential Shrinkage


    Moisture Determination


    Permissible Variations




    1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    1.4 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D9 Terminology Relating to Wood and Wood-Based Products

    D198 Test Methods of Static Tests of Lumber in Structural Sizes

    D2395 Test Methods for Density and Specific Gravity (Relative Density) of Wood and Wood-Based Materials

    D3043 Test Methods for Structural Panels in Flexure

    D4442 Test Methods for Direct Moisture Content Measurement of Wood and Wood-Based Materials

    D4761 Test Methods for Mechanical Properties of Lumber and Wood-Based Structural Materials

    D5536 Practice for Sampling Forest Trees for Determination of Clear Wood Properties

    E4 Practices for Force Verification of Testing Machines

    E2309 Practices for Verification of Displacement Measuring Systems and Devices Used in Material Testing Machines

    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 79.040 (Wood, sawlogs and sawn timber)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 11121600(Wood)

    Referencing This Standard
    Link Here
    Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.)

    DOI: 10.1520/D0143-21

    Citation Format

    ASTM D143-21, Standard Test Methods for Small Clear Specimens of Timber, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2021, www.astm.org

    Back to Top