ASTM D1415 - 18

    Standard Test Method for Rubber Property—International Hardness

    Active Standard ASTM D1415 | Developed by Subcommittee: D11.10

    Book of Standards Volume: 09.01


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    Significance and Use

    4.1 The International Hardness test is based on measurement of the penetration of a rigid ball into the rubber specimen under specified conditions. The measured penetration is converted into IRHD, the scale of degrees being so chosen that 0 represents a material having an elastic modulus of zero, and 100 represents a material of infinite elastic modulus.

    4.1.1 The scale also fulfills the following conditions over most of the normal range of hardness: one IRHD range represents approximately the same proportionate difference in Young's modulus, and for rubber vulcanizates in the usual range of resilience, readings in IRHD are comparable with those given by a Type A durometer (Test Method D2240) when testing standard specimens.

    4.1.1.1 The term “usual range of resilience” is used to exclude those compounds that have unusually high rates of stress relaxation or deformational hysteresis. For such compounds, differences in the dwell time in the two hardness tests (Test Methods D2240 and D1415) result in differences in hardness values. Readings may not be comparable when testing curved or irregularly shaped test specimens.

    4.1.2 For substantially elastic isotropic materials like well-vulcanized natural rubbers, the hardness in IRHD bears a known relation to Young's modulus, although for markedly plastic or anisotropic rubbers the relationship will be less precisely known.

    4.1.3 The relation between the difference of penetration and the hardness expressed in IRHD is based on the following:

    4.1.3.1 The relation4 between penetration and Young's modulus for a perfectly elastic isotropic material:

    Equation D1415-18_1

    where:

    D   =   known relationship for a perfectly elastic isotropic material, between indentation,
    R   =   radium of the ball, mm,
    F   =   total indenting force,
    E   =   Young's modulus expressed in megapascals, and
    f   =   contact force

    4.1.3.2 Use of a probit (integrated normal error) curve to relate log10 M and hardness in IRHD, as shown in Fig. 1. This curve is defined as follows:

    FIG. 1   Point Curve to Relate Log10 M and the Hardness in IRHD

      Point Curve to Relate Log  Point Curve to Relate Log

    4.1.3.3 The value of log10 M corresponding to the midpoint of the curve is equal to 0.364, that is, M  = 2.31 MPa or 335 psi.

    4.1.3.4 The maximum slope is equal to 57 IRHD per unit increase in log10 M.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for measuring the hardness of vulcanized or thermoplastic rubber. The hardness is obtained by the difference in penetration depth of a specified dimension ball under two conditions of contact with the rubber: (1) with a small initial force and (2) with a much larger final force. The differential penetration is taken at a specified time and converted to a hardness scale value.

    1.2 This test method is technically similar to ISO 48.

    1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    1.4 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D1349 Practice for Rubber--Standard Conditions for Testing

    D2240 Test Method for Rubber PropertyDurometer Hardness

    D4483 Practice for Evaluating Precision for Test Method Standards in the Rubber and Carbon Black Manufacturing Industries

    International Standard

    ISO 48 Rubber, Vulcanized or ThermoplasticDetermination of Hardness (Hardness between 10 and 100 IRHD)


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 83.060 (Rubber)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 13100000(Rubber and elastomers)


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    DOI: 10.1520/D1415-18

    Citation Format

    ASTM D1415-18, Standard Test Method for Rubber Property—International Hardness, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2018, www.astm.org

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