ASTM D1278 - 91a(2020)

    Standard Test Methods for Rubber from Natural Sources—Chemical Analysis

    Active Standard ASTM D1278 | Developed by Subcommittee: D11.22

    Book of Standards Volume: 09.01

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    Significance and Use

    3.1 These test methods are intended for quality control acceptance of natural rubber and may be used for referee purposes.

    1. Scope

    1.1 These test methods cover the sampling and chemical analysis of solid natural rubber in the forms supplied to the rubber industry.

    1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order:





    Volatile Matter

    6 – 8


    9 – 13


    14 – 17

    Copper (Referee Colorimetric Method)

    18 – 22

    Copper (Alternative Colorimetric Method)

    23 – 27

    Copper (Alternative Flame Atomic Absorption Method)


    Manganese (Colorimetric Method)

    29 – 33

    Manganese (Alternative Flame Atomic Absorption Method)


    Iron (Colorimetric Method)

    35 – 39

    Acetone Extract

    40 – 41

    Rubber Hydrocarbon

    42 – 43


    44 – 45

    1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values in parentheses are for information only.

    1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D297 Test Methods for Rubber ProductsChemical Analysis

    D1193 Specification for Reagent Water

    D1485 Practice for Rubber from Natural SourcesSampling and Sample Preparation

    D3533 Test Method for Rubber--Nitrogen Content

    D4004 Test Methods for RubberDetermination of Metal Content by Flame Atomic Absorption (AAS) Analysis

    D4483 Practice for Evaluating Precision for Test Method Standards in the Rubber and Carbon Black Manufacturing Industries

    E11 Specification for Woven Wire Test Sieve Cloth and Test Sieves

    E131 Terminology Relating to Molecular Spectroscopy

    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 83.040.10 (Latex and raw rubber)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 13101500(Natural rubber)

    Referencing This Standard
    Link Here
    Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.)

    DOI: 10.1520/D1278-91AR20

    Citation Format

    ASTM D1278-91a(2020), Standard Test Methods for Rubber from Natural Sources—Chemical Analysis, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2020,

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