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**Significance and Use**

5.1 Sonic velocity measurements are useful for comparing materials with similar elastic properties, dimensions, and microstructure.

5.2 Eq 1 provides an accurate value of Young’s modulus only for isotropic, non-attenuative, and non-dispersive materials of infinite dimensions. For non-isotropic graphite, Eq 1 can be modified to take into account the Poisson’s ratios in all directions. As graphite is a strongly attenuative material, the value of Young’s modulus obtained with Eq 1 will be dependent on specimen length. If the specimen lateral dimensions are not large compared to the wavelength of the propagated pulse, then the value of Young’s modulus obtained with Eq 1 will be dependent on the specimen lateral dimensions. The accuracy of the Young's modulus calculated from Eq 1 will also depend upon the uncertainty in Poisson's ratio and its impact on the evaluation of the Poisson's factor in Eq 2. However, a value for Young's modulus can be obtained for many applications, which is often in good agreement with the value obtained by other more accurate methods, such as in Test Method C747. The technical issues and typical values of corresponding uncertainties are discussed in detail in STP 1578.5

5.3 If the grain size of the carbon or graphite is greater than or about equal to the wavelength of the sonic pulse, the method may not be providing a value of Young’s modulus representative of the bulk material. Therefore, it would be recommended to test a lower frequency (longer wavelength) to demonstrate that the range of obtained velocity values are within an acceptable level of accuracy. Significant signal attenuation should be expected when the grain size of the material is greater than or about equal to the wavelength of the transmitted sonic pulse or the material is more porous than would be expected for an as-manufactured graphite.

Note 1: Due to frequency dependent attenuation in graphite, the wavelength of the sonic pulse through the test specimen is not necessarily the same as the wavelength of the transmitting transducer.

5.4 If the sample is only a few grains thick, the acceptability of the method’s application should be demonstrated by initially performing measurements on a series of tests covering a range of sample lengths between the proposed test length and a test length incorporating sufficient grains to adequately represent the bulk material.

**1. Scope**

1.1 This test method covers a procedure for measuring the sonic velocity in manufactured carbon and graphite which can be used to obtain an approximate value of Young's modulus.

1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

1.3 *This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.*

**2. Referenced Documents** *(purchase separately)* The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

**ASTM Standards**

C559 Test Method for Bulk Density by Physical Measurements of Manufactured Carbon and Graphite Articles

C747 Test Method for Moduli of Elasticity and Fundamental Frequencies of Carbon and Graphite Materials by Sonic Resonance

**ICS Code**

ICS Number Code 71.100.99 (Other products of the chemical industry)

**UNSPSC Code**

UNSPSC Code 11101507(Graphite); 12141908(Carbon C)

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**DOI:** 10.1520/C0769-15

**Citation Format**

ASTM C769-15, Standard Test Method for Sonic Velocity in Manufactured Carbon and Graphite Materials for Use in Obtaining an Approximate Value of Young's Modulus, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2015, www.astm.org

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