ASTM C747 - 16

    Standard Test Method for Moduli of Elasticity and Fundamental Frequencies of Carbon and Graphite Materials by Sonic Resonance

    Active Standard ASTM C747 | Developed by Subcommittee: D02.F0

    Book of Standards Volume: 05.05


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    Significance and Use

    5.1 This test method may be used for material development, characterization, design data generation, and quality control purposes.

    5.2 This test method is primarily concerned with the room temperature determination of the dynamic moduli of elasticity and rigidity of slender rods or bars composed of homogeneously distributed carbon or graphite particles.

    5.3 This test method can be adapted for other materials that are elastic in their initial stress-strain behavior, as defined in Test Method E111.

    5.4 This basic test method can be modified to determine elastic moduli behavior at temperatures from –75 °C to +2500 °C. Thin graphite rods may be used to project the specimen extremities into ambient temperature conditions to provide resonant frequency detection by the use of transducers as described in 7.1.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method covers determination of the dynamic elastic properties of isotropic and near isotropic carbon and graphite materials at ambient temperatures. Specimens of these materials possess specific mechanical resonant frequencies that are determined by the elastic modulus, mass, and geometry of the test specimen. The dynamic elastic properties of a material can therefore be computed if the geometry, mass, and mechanical resonant frequencies of a suitable (rectangular or cylindrical) test specimen of that material can be measured. Dynamic Young's modulus is determined using the resonant frequency in the flexural or longitudinal mode of vibration. The dynamic shear modulus, or modulus of rigidity, is found using torsional resonant vibrations. Dynamic Young's modulus and dynamic shear modulus are used to compute Poisson's ratio.

    1.2 This test method determines elastic properties by measuring the fundamental resonant frequency of test specimens of suitable geometry by exciting them mechanically by a singular elastic strike with an impulse tool. Specimen supports, impulse locations, and signal pick-up points are selected to induce and measure specific modes of the transient vibrations. A transducer (for example, contact accelerometer or non-contacting microphone) senses the resulting mechanical vibrations of the specimen and transforms them into electric signals. (See Fig. 1.) The transient signals are analyzed, and the fundamental resonant frequency is isolated and measured by the signal analyzer, which provides a numerical reading that is (or is proportional to) either the frequency or the period of the specimen vibration. The appropriate fundamental resonant frequencies, dimensions, and mass of the specimen are used to calculate dynamic Young's modulus, dynamic shear modulus, and Poisson's ratio. Annex A1 contains an alternative approach using continuous excitation.

    1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

    1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    C215 Test Method for Fundamental Transverse, Longitudinal, and Torsional Resonant Frequencies of Concrete Specimens

    C559 Test Method for Bulk Density by Physical Measurements of Manufactured Carbon and Graphite Articles

    C885 Test Method for Youngs Modulus of Refractory Shapes by Sonic Resonance

    C1161 Test Method for Flexural Strength of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperature

    E111 Test Method for Youngs Modulus, Tangent Modulus, and Chord Modulus

    E177 Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods

    E228 Test Method for Linear Thermal Expansion of Solid Materials With a Push-Rod Dilatometer

    E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 71.060.10 (Chemical elements)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 11101507(Graphite); 12141908(Carbon C)


    Referencing This Standard
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    DOI: 10.1520/C0747-16

    Citation Format

    ASTM C747-16, Standard Test Method for Moduli of Elasticity and Fundamental Frequencies of Carbon and Graphite Materials by Sonic Resonance, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2016, www.astm.org

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