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This test method covers determination of the fineness of hydraulic cement, using the Blaine air-permeability apparatus, in terms of the specific surface expressed as total surface area in square centimetres per gram, or square metres per kilogram, of cement. Two test methods are given: test method A is the reference test method using the manually operated standard Blaine apparatus, while test method B permits the use of automated apparatus that has in accordance with the qualification requirements of this test method demonstrated acceptable performance. The Blaine air-permeability apparatus consists essentially of a means of drawing a definite quantity of air through a prepared bed of cement of definite porosity. The permeability cell shall consist of a rigid cylinder, constructed of austenitic stainless steel. The disk shall be constructed of noncorroding metal, and shall fit the inside of the cell snugly. The plunger shall be constructed of austenitic stainless steel and shall fit into the cell. The filter paper disks shall be circular, with smooth edges, and shall have the same diameter as the inside of the cell. The U-tube manometer shall be constructed according to the design indicated. The manometer shall be filled to the midpoint line with a nonvolatile, nonhygroscopic liquid of low viscosity and density. The timer shall have a positive starting and stopping mechanism. The calibration of the air permeability apparatus shall be made using the standard reference material. The automated test method shall employ apparatus designed either on the principles of the Blaine air-permeability method or apparatus based on the air-permeability principles of the Lea and Nurse method. When the specific surface values determined by an automated apparatus are to be used for acceptance or rejection of cement, the method used shall comply with the qualification requirements. When standardization is required in order to achieve agreement between test method A and test method B, the apparatus shall be standardized according to the requirements prescribed.
This abstract is a brief summary of the referenced standard. It is informational only and not an official part of the standard; the full text of the standard itself must be referred to for its use and application. ASTM does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents of this abstract are accurate, complete or up to date.
1.1 This test method covers determination of the fineness of hydraulic cement, using the Blaine air-permeability apparatus, in terms of the specific surface expressed as total surface area in square centimetres per gram, or square metres per kilogram, of cement. Two test methods are given: Test Method A is the Reference Test Method using the manually operated standard Blaine apparatus, while Test Method B permits the use of automated apparatus that has in accordance with the qualification requirements of this test method demonstrated acceptable performance. Although the test method may be, and has been, used for the determination of the measures of fineness of various other materials, it should be understood that, in general, relative rather than absolute fineness values are obtained.
1.1.1 This test method is known to work well for portland cements. However, the user should exercise judgement in determining its suitability with regard to fineness measurements of cements with densities, or porosities that differ from those assigned to Standard Reference Material No. 114 or No. 46h.
1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard.
1.3 Warning—Mercury has been designated by many regulatory agencies as a hazardous substance that can cause serious medical issues. Mercury, or its vapor, has been demonstrated to be hazardous to health and corrosive to materials. Caution should be taken when handling mercury and mercury containing products. See the applicable product Safety Data Sheet (SDS) for additional information. Users should be aware that selling mercury and/or mercury containing products into your state or country may be prohibited by law.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
NIST StandardsNo.114 National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material
A582/A582M Specification for Free-Machining Stainless Steel Bars
C125 Terminology Relating to Concrete and Concrete Aggregates
C219 Terminology Relating to Hydraulic Cement
C670 Practice for Preparing Precision and Bias Statements for Test Methods for Construction Materials
E832 Specification for Laboratory Filter Papers
Other DocumentBS 4359: 1971 British Standard Method for the Determination of Specific Surface of Powders: Part 2: Air Permeability Methods Available from British Standards Institute (BSI), 389 Chiswick High Rd., London W4 4AL, U.K., http://www.bsi-global.com.
ICS Number Code 91.100.10 (Cement. Gypsum. Lime. Mortar)
UNSPSC Code 30111601(Cement)
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ASTM C204-18e1, Standard Test Methods for Fineness of Hydraulic Cement by Air-Permeability Apparatus, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2018, www.astm.orgBack to Top